Deadlines/Homework 12C 1. Complete the remainder of the

Deadlines/Homework 12C 1. Complete the remainder of the

Deadlines/Homework 12C 1. Complete the remainder of the homework booklet to hand in on Friday 5th February. 2. Revise for a test on Section 3.2 (Cells) on Friday 12th February. 12D 3. Complete the remainder of the homework booklet to hand in on Thursday 4th February. 4. Revise for a test on Section 3.2 (Cells) on Thursday 11th February.

HIV, Monoclonal Antibodies and the ELISA test 3 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 4 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008

What are HIV and AIDS? In 2007, 33.2 million people were estimated to be living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a retrovirus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) a deterioration of the immune system. There is currently no cure for infection with HIV; however,

antiretroviral drugs have been developed to help delay the onset of AIDS. 5 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 HIV replication 6 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008

Effect of HIV on the immune system 7 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome The decrease in the number of helper Tcells eventually means the patient is unable to defend themselves against other

pathogens. Patients die from common diseases, tumours and opportunistic infections, e.g. TB or pneumonia. 8 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Kaposi's sarcoma

Pneumocystis carinii Toxoplasmosis Stages of HIV infection Replace circles with outline of HIV taken from animation 10 of 45

Boardworks Ltd 2008 HIV diagnosis and transmission 11 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Antiretroviral drugs Modern antiretroviral drugs are designed to reduce the

production of HIV by targeting different stages of its lifecycle. reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent viral RNA being copied into DNA for protein synthesis. protease inhibitors inhibit proteases used in the synthesis

of viral proteins. HIV can develop resistance to these drugs so they are often taken in combination. 12 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Why not use antibiotics? Antibiotics are a group of drugs used to treat bacterial infections.

There are two different types of antibiotics: bactericidal kill bacterial cells bacteriostatic slow the growth or reproduction of bacteria.

Some antibiotics prevent the formation of bacterial cell walls, resulting in osmotic lysis. Antibiotics do not destroy viruses suggest why. 13 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Why dont antibiotics destroy viruses? Viruses are found inside host cells so are

difficult to target Many antibiotics target the production of the cell wall (murein a peptide). Viruses have a protein coat so are unaffected. 14 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 DNA replication and HIV treatment Answer the questions

15 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 DNA replication and HIV treatment 1 a W = cytosine (1 mark) X = deoxyribose (1 mark) Y = phosphate (1 mark) Z = thymine (1 mark)

16 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 b Any two of: the base uracil is substituted for thymine; (1 mark) DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose sugar; (1 mark) DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded. (1 mark)

17 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 2 a S phase (1 mark) b DNA polymerase (1 mark) free (DNA) nucleotides. (1 mark) c Bases combine in complementary base pairing; (1 mark) A with T, C with G(1 mark)

d The new DNA molecule is made of two strands; (1 mark) one original parent strand, one new strand. (1 mark) 18 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 3 a AZT has no phosphate group; (1 mark) AZT has substituted the OH (on the

sugar) with N3 (1 mark) b AZT will combine with adenine; (1 mark) as it is a similar shape to thymine/or complementary shape to adenine. (1 mark) 19 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 c It would be unable to make a sugar

phosphate backbone/wont combine with the phosphate on the neighbouring nucleotide. (1 mark) d The virus is unable to make DNA so cant reproduce. (1 mark) 20 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008

HIV and AIDS 21 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Monoclonal Antibodies and the ELISA test What are monoclonal antibodies? Polyclonal antibodies are naturally produced in an immune

response. Different plasma cells secrete antibodies, resulting in a variety of different antibodies against a specific antigen. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are antibodies produced from clones of a single plasma cell and are therefore all identical. They have many important uses, such as: the treatment of cancer and other diseases

drug screening home pregnancy kits scientific research.

Production of monoclonal antibodies Large quantities of mAbs can be produced using mice or rabbits. A specific antigen is injected into the animal, stimulating the production of plasma cells. The plasma cells are removed from the animal and fused with cancerous myeloma cells from normal mice. These form immortal

hybridoma cells, which can produce a single type of antibody indefinitely. ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Tests for the presence of particular antigens or antibodies in a sample. ELISA Direct ELISA uses monoclonal antibodies to

test for an antigen. Indirect ELISA uses an antigen to test for an antibody. In both cases, a positive result is seen as a change in colour. An enzyme bound to an antibody is added to the plate. If it binds, the enzyme changes the colour of a substrate.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The 511 new testament theology - boliviabiblia

    The 511 new testament theology - boliviabiblia

    The 511 new testament theology. Class XI: Unity and diversity in the nt theology ... Epiphany of the Savior and Lord to save sinners - manifestation of grace. ... Local assembly, local assemblies in an area, church in general ...
  • Ch 5.1 The Nature of Chemical Reactions - Yola

    Ch 5.1 The Nature of Chemical Reactions - Yola

    Ch 6.1 Chemical Reactions Objectives For this Chapter Understand parts to a chemical equation (reactants, products, yeild sign, double arrow) Conservation of matter is expressed through balancing chemical equations Describe difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions Review from Ch 2...
  • brentsubicpd.weebly.com

    brentsubicpd.weebly.com

    Brainpop is an educational website that can be used on devices such as the laptop, iPad, iPhone and Android devices. This app provides over 1,000 videos that can be used by teachers and students from K-12.
  • The Fall of Rome - Biloxi Public School District

    The Fall of Rome - Biloxi Public School District

    The decline of the Roman Empire began under Commodus. Historians believe that several problems led to the fall of Rome. Weak, Corrupt Rulers. After Commodus, emperors were almost always successful general, not politicians. they often stole money from the treasury,...
  • PowerPoint 簡報 - HKEdCity

    PowerPoint 簡報 - HKEdCity

    熱點事件 - 醫療美容事件 回到通識教育科網上資源平台 瀏覽內容 引言 二月份時事熱點:2013年施政報告 早前,行政長官發表了他的首份施政報告,當中有不少與通識教育科的內容有關,值得關注的議題。
  • CHAPITRE I: concept et domaine

    CHAPITRE I: concept et domaine

    Approche stratégique; Autre modèle d'analyse : la Matrice BCG (Boston Consulting Group), son action va vers Les organisations confrontées à la question de leur développement face à la concurrence et aux différentes évolutions de leurs environnements et qui devraient entrevoir...
  • Onomastic Variation By Don L. F. Nilsen and

    Onomastic Variation By Don L. F. Nilsen and

    Misspellings Sunkist Oranges Jello Dessert DieHard Batteries Evenflo baby bottles Klos kids' clothing Mop & Glo cleaner Sew n' Vac repairs * * Shortened Phrases * Mrs. Malaprop from Richard Brinsley Sheridan's The Rivals * "X-Rated" Brands Sinex medicine Sominex...
  • Assessment of Hops for Tennessee

    Assessment of Hops for Tennessee

    Assessment of Hops for Tennessee. David Hughes and Hannah Wright, UTIA Extension. Agricultural & Resource Economics. Outline. Growth in Craft Beer-Hops. Nature of plant, processing. Hops in the Southeast. Hops. Hops is a flower of Humulus lupulus .