Deadlines/Homework 12C 1. Complete the remainder of the
Deadlines/Homework 12C 1. Complete the remainder of the homework booklet to hand in on Friday 5th February. 2. Revise for a test on Section 3.2 (Cells) on Friday 12th February. 12D 3. Complete the remainder of the homework booklet to hand in on Thursday 4th February. 4. Revise for a test on Section 3.2 (Cells) on Thursday 11th February.
HIV, Monoclonal Antibodies and the ELISA test 3 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 4 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008
What are HIV and AIDS? In 2007, 33.2 million people were estimated to be living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a retrovirus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) a deterioration of the immune system. There is currently no cure for infection with HIV; however,
antiretroviral drugs have been developed to help delay the onset of AIDS. 5 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 HIV replication 6 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008
Effect of HIV on the immune system 7 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome The decrease in the number of helper Tcells eventually means the patient is unable to defend themselves against other
pathogens. Patients die from common diseases, tumours and opportunistic infections, e.g. TB or pneumonia. 8 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Kaposi's sarcoma
Pneumocystis carinii Toxoplasmosis Stages of HIV infection Replace circles with outline of HIV taken from animation 10 of 45
Boardworks Ltd 2008 HIV diagnosis and transmission 11 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Antiretroviral drugs Modern antiretroviral drugs are designed to reduce the
production of HIV by targeting different stages of its lifecycle. reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent viral RNA being copied into DNA for protein synthesis. protease inhibitors inhibit proteases used in the synthesis
of viral proteins. HIV can develop resistance to these drugs so they are often taken in combination. 12 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Why not use antibiotics? Antibiotics are a group of drugs used to treat bacterial infections.
There are two different types of antibiotics: bactericidal kill bacterial cells bacteriostatic slow the growth or reproduction of bacteria.
Some antibiotics prevent the formation of bacterial cell walls, resulting in osmotic lysis. Antibiotics do not destroy viruses suggest why. 13 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Why dont antibiotics destroy viruses? Viruses are found inside host cells so are
difficult to target Many antibiotics target the production of the cell wall (murein a peptide). Viruses have a protein coat so are unaffected. 14 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 DNA replication and HIV treatment Answer the questions
15 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 DNA replication and HIV treatment 1 a W = cytosine (1 mark) X = deoxyribose (1 mark) Y = phosphate (1 mark) Z = thymine (1 mark)
16 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 b Any two of: the base uracil is substituted for thymine; (1 mark) DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose sugar; (1 mark) DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded. (1 mark)
17 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 2 a S phase (1 mark) b DNA polymerase (1 mark) free (DNA) nucleotides. (1 mark) c Bases combine in complementary base pairing; (1 mark) A with T, C with G(1 mark)
d The new DNA molecule is made of two strands; (1 mark) one original parent strand, one new strand. (1 mark) 18 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 3 a AZT has no phosphate group; (1 mark) AZT has substituted the OH (on the
sugar) with N3 (1 mark) b AZT will combine with adenine; (1 mark) as it is a similar shape to thymine/or complementary shape to adenine. (1 mark) 19 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 c It would be unable to make a sugar
phosphate backbone/wont combine with the phosphate on the neighbouring nucleotide. (1 mark) d The virus is unable to make DNA so cant reproduce. (1 mark) 20 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008
HIV and AIDS 21 of 45 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Monoclonal Antibodies and the ELISA test What are monoclonal antibodies? Polyclonal antibodies are naturally produced in an immune
response. Different plasma cells secrete antibodies, resulting in a variety of different antibodies against a specific antigen. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are antibodies produced from clones of a single plasma cell and are therefore all identical. They have many important uses, such as: the treatment of cancer and other diseases
drug screening home pregnancy kits scientific research.
Production of monoclonal antibodies Large quantities of mAbs can be produced using mice or rabbits. A specific antigen is injected into the animal, stimulating the production of plasma cells. The plasma cells are removed from the animal and fused with cancerous myeloma cells from normal mice. These form immortal
hybridoma cells, which can produce a single type of antibody indefinitely. ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Tests for the presence of particular antigens or antibodies in a sample. ELISA Direct ELISA uses monoclonal antibodies to
test for an antigen. Indirect ELISA uses an antigen to test for an antibody. In both cases, a positive result is seen as a change in colour. An enzyme bound to an antibody is added to the plate. If it binds, the enzyme changes the colour of a substrate.
The 511 new testament theology. Class XI: Unity and diversity in the nt theology ... Epiphany of the Savior and Lord to save sinners - manifestation of grace. ... Local assembly, local assemblies in an area, church in general ...
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