Key terms Valves Prevents backflow of blood Pulmonary

Key terms Valves Prevents backflow of blood Pulmonary

Key terms
Valves

Prevents backflow of blood

Pulmonary circuit

Blood flow from the heart
to the lungs and back to the
heart

Vena Cava

Aorta

Pulmonary
vein

Pulmonary
Artery

Left atrium

Right atrium

Vasoconstriction

Right side
de-oxygenated

Narrowing the diameter of
vessels
Widening the diameter of
vessels

Blood Pressure

Force exerted by blood on
the walls of arteries

Diastole

Left
ventricle

Blood is directed away from
inactive parts of the body to
the working muscles

Vasodilation

Systole

Right
ventricle

Maximum pressure in the
arteries when the heart
contracts
Pressure of the blood on
the arteries when the heart
relaxes

Left side
oxygenated

Key points

Transport oxygen and nutrients

1. Heart and
vessels deliver
oxygen to cells
for respiration
2. Carries nutrients
to where they
are needed
3. Carries waste
products away

Clotting

1. Platelets form a
scab to stop
bleeding and
infection

Control temperature

1. Vasodilation
occurs when the
body gets too
hot
2. Vasoconstriction
occurs when the
body gets too
cold

Structure of Blood Vessels

Arteries

Vascular shunt

Blood flow from the heart
to the body and back to the
heart

Capillaries Veins

Systemic circuit

Functions of the CV system

Function

Diameter/Thickness

Pressure

Carry blood away
from the heart

Small to alleviate
pressure. Thick walls
to withstand high
pressure

High

Carry blood back
to the heart

Wide to carry large
volumes of blood.
Thin walls as under
low pressure

Low

Gaseous exchange
(diffusion) takes
place

Large surface area for
gaseous exchange
One cell thick

Low

Blood
movement
Cardiac
output
Stroke
volume
Heart rate

Definition (Q = SV x HR)
The amount of blood
pumped out of the heart per
minute (l)
The amount of blood
pumped by the left ventricle
per beat (ml)
The number of times the
heart beats per minute

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