Father Involvement and Child Well-Being: 2006 Survey of

Father Involvement and Child Well-Being: 2006 Survey of

Father Involvement and Child Well-Being: 2006 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Child Well-Being Topical Module By Jane Lawler Dye Fertility and Family Statistics Branch U.S. Census Bureau This poster is released to inform interested parties of ongoing research and to encourage discussion. Any views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau. U S C E N S U S B U R E A U Helping You Make Informed Decisions 1 Purpose Research suggests a positive association between father involvement and child well being (Menestrel, 1999). However, the relationship has not been investigated in much depth. The well-being of children can be affected by many circumstances and parental behaviors. Research shows that for young children father involvement is associated with better cognitive development, psychological outcomes and behavior (Radin, 1994). However, the effects of father involvement may depend on factors such as whether the father is a biological or stepfather, engagement time, and fathers

educational attainment (Hofferth, 2006). 2 Data Source 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) The SIPP provides a large, nationally representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population age 15 and over with data on income, labor force participation, and participation in government assistance programs, as well as other characteristics. Data in this presentation are from a sample, and therefore are subject to sampling and nonsampling error. For more information about the source and accuracy of the data go to http://www.bls.census.gov/sipp/source.html All statements in this presentation have been statistically tested at the 90 percent level of confidence. For more information about the SIPP go to www.sipp.census.gov/sipp 3 Child Well-Being Topical Module The Child Well-Being Topical Module was administered to parents of children under age 18 from June 2006 to September 2006 in wave 8 of the SIPP 2004 panel. A designated parent* was asked a series of questions related to father involvement. In this analysis we include

the following: Did the biological, step, adopted father, or male guardian Praise the child? Talk or play with the child? Eat dinner with the child? *The mother was selected as the designated parent unless absent then the father was selected. If neither parent was present a female guardian was selected. If no female guardian was present a male guardian was designated parent. 4 Trends in Father Involvement Among children 6 to 17 years old who live with a father:* the percentage eating dinner with a father at least five days per week declined from 76 percent in 2003 to 74 percent in 2006. the percentage who talked or played with a father for five minutes or more at least once a day on average rose about 4 percentage points. the percent who were praised by a father at least once a day increased 6 percentage points. *Father may be biological, step, adoptive, or a male guardian. Figure 1. Percent of Children Age 6 to 17 Who Were Involved with their Father*: 2003-2006 Eat dinner with child at least five days per week

Universe: Children with a father in the household. Talk or Play with child at least once per day Praise child at least once per day 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 2003 2004 2006 *Questions are only asked if a biological, step, or adoptive father or male guardian is in the household. 6 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, Panels 2001 and 2004; Child Well-Being Topical Modules. Father Involvement by Age and Sex In 2006, among children 6 to 17 years old with a father in the household:

Fathers were more involved with young children than older children. Children 6 to 11 years old were 7 percentage points more likely to eat dinner with a father five or more days a week, 8 percentage points more likely to talk or play with father, and 15 percentage points more likely to be praised at least once a day. Fathers were about equally involved with sons and daughters. Figure 2. Percent of Children 6 to 17 Years Old by Indicators of Father Involvement, Age, and Sex: 2006 Eat dinner with Father at least 5 days per week Universe: Children with a father in the household Talk/Play with Father at least once a day Praised by Father at least once a day 78 80 81

75 71 75 71 73 74 76 74 66 6 to 11 years 12 to 17 years Male U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. Female

8 Number of Parents present Children in single-parent-father households had more involvement with their father through talking or playing and praise: In one parent households, 8 out of 10 children talked or played with a father at least once per day, 77 percent of children in one parent households were praised at least once per day. Type of Relationship with Father and Fathers Marital Status Biological fathers were more involved than stepfathers -- although the differences were small. There was no significant difference in father involvement based on fathers marital status among this group of children who have a father in the household. Figure 3. Percent of Children 6 to 17 Years Old by Indicators of Father Involvement, Number of Parents Present, Relationship with Father, and Father's Marital Status: 2006 Universe: Children with a father in the household Eat dinner together at least 5 days per week Talk/Play at least once a day

Praised at least once a day 81 80 75 77 74 75 74 75 76 75 70 65 66 None present

One parent Tw o parents Number of parents present Biological child 70 72 72 71 74 75 74 76 76

74 67 Step-child Adopted child Relationship with father Married Unm arried Father's marital status U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 11 Race and Hispanic Origin Hispanic children were most likely to eat dinner regularly with their father (81 percent) versus 69 percent of Black children. Non-Hispanic White children were more likely to talk or play with their father (78 percent) versus

69 percent of Hispanic children. Hispanic children were less likely to be praised every day (70 percent) versus 75 percent of non-Hispanic White children. Figure 4. Percent of Children 6 to 17 by Father Involvement, Race and Hispanic Origin: 2006 Eat dinner together at least 5 days per week Universe: Children with a father in the household Talk/Play at least once a day Praised at least once a day 81 77 73 75 73 69 White alone, Non-Hispanic

Black alone 74 72 75 74 69 Asian alone U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 70 Hispanic 13 Fathers Educational Attainment and Family Income In general, children whose father had less education and less family income tended to be more likely to eat dinner together at least five days per week. Children whose father had higher educational attainment

tended to be more likely to be talked to or played with and be praised by a father every day. Children who had a lower family income ($2,999 per month or less) tended to be talked to or played with and praised by a father less than those with an income of $6,000 per month or more. Figure 5. Percent of Children 6 to 17 Years Old by Indicators of Father Involvement, Father's Educational Attainment and Family Income: 2006 Eat dinner together at least 5 days per week Universe: Children with a father in the household Talk/Play at least once a day Praised at least once a day 81 81 76 77 73 73

80 75 72 75 72 72 69 68 76 75 74 76 77 74 75

71 70 65 Less than high school High school graduate Some college or more Fathers educational attainment Under $1,500 $1,500 to $2,999 $3,000 to $4,499 $4,500 to $5,999

$6,000 and over Family income U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 15 Region Children who live in the Northeast were least likely to eat dinner with their father at least five days per week (70 percent) versus 77 percent in the West. Children in the Midwest were most likely to talk or play with their father every day (80 percent) versus 73 percent in the South. Children in the South were least likely to be praised every day by their father (70 percent) versus 77 percent in the West. Metro Status Children who live in nonmetropolitan areas were

more likely to eat dinner with their father at least five days per week Less likely to be praised at least once a day by their father. Figure 6. Percent of Children 6 to 17 Years Old by Indicators of Father Involvement, Region, and Metropolitan Status: 2006 Eat dinner together at least 5 days per week Talk/Play at least once a day Praised at least once a day Universe: Children with a father in the household 80 74 70 Northeast 73 75 73 Midw est

75 77 73 South 76 70 West 77 74 75 74 In metropolitan area U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 76

76 73 Nonmetropolitan area 18 Bivariate Analysis School Attachment Child often likes school Child often works hard in school Child is often interested in school work Academic Performance Child is in gifted classes Child never repeated a grade Child was never expelled or suspended 19 School Attachment In the bivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in school attachment by father involvement Between 86 and 89 percent of children often liked school, worked hard in school or were interested in school work regardless of the degree of father

involvement. Figure 7. School Attachment by Father Involvement: 2006 Universe: Children with a father in the household 88 88 87 Like school 88 88 87 Less than 5 days per At least 5 days per week week Dinner together Work hard in school Are interested in schoolwork 88 89 87 88 88 87 Less than once a day

At least once a day Talk or play together 88 89 88 88 87 86 Less than once a day At least once a day Praised U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 21 Academic Performance Children who had dinner with their father at least five days per week were less likely to be in gifted classes more likely to have never been expelled or suspended.*

Children who talked or played with their father at least once per day were more likely to be in gifted classes more likely to never been expelled or suspended.* Children who were praised by their father at least once per day were more likely to have never repeated a grade. more likely to have never been expelled or suspended.* *among 12 to 17 year olds Figure 8. Academic Performance by Father Involvement: 2006 Were in gifted class Never repeated a grade Were never expelled/ suspended* Universe: Children with a father in the household 94 93 90 93

93 24 19 Less than 5 days per At least 5 days per week week Dinner together 93 90 93 21 18 Less than once a day At least once a day Talk or Play together

92 94 93 90 20 20 Less than once a day At least once a day Praised *for 12 to 17 year old children. U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 23 Multivariate Analysis Dependent variables School attachment

Academic performance Independent variables Father Involvement Control variables Number of parents present, type of relationship with father, age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, fathers educational attainment, metropolitan status, family income and region. For households where the mother was present, controlling for mother involvement dampened the effects of father involvement (data not shown). 24 Figure 9. Odds Ratios for Children 6 to 17 years by Father Involvement and Indicators of School Engagement and Academic Performance: 2006 Dinner together at least 5 days per week Talk/Play at least once per day Praised at least once per day Often Likes School Often Works Hard in School *

Is Often Interested in Schoolwork + * In Gifted classes ** *** Never expelled or suspended1 *** *** Never repeated a grade 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

2.5 3 3.5 "+" - 0.05<=p<0., * - Significant at 0.01<=p<0.05, ** - Significant at 0.001<=p<0.01, *** - Significant at p<0.001 1. Restricted to 12 to 17 year old children. U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation 2004 Panel Wave 8, Child Well-Being Topical Module. 25 Conclusion Father involvement was significantly related to some aspects of child well-being: Academic performance Especially with regard to the indicator that reflects disciplinary action -Never suspended or expelled Children who were praised every day, who spent time talking or playing with their father every day, and/or who ate dinner with their father at least five days per week had significantly higher odds of never being suspended or expelled from school. Children whose father praised them every day had higher odds of being in gifted classes. Surprisingly, however, children who had dinner with their father at least five days per week had lower odds of being in gifted classes than those who ate dinner with their father less often.

Conclusion School engagement Children who talked or played with their father every day had greater odds of being characterized as often interested in school work compared to those who spent less time with their father talking or playing. Childrens odds of experiencing the other measures of school engagement (often likes school, works hard in school) and of never repeating a grade showed no significant difference associated with father involvement. Contact Jane Lawler Dye U.S. Census Bureau Fertility and Family Statistics (301) 763-6057 [email protected] U S C E N S U S B U R E A U Helping You Make Informed Decisions

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