Civil War and Reconstruction 1845-1877 Political & Judicial
Civil War and Reconstruction 1845-1877 Political & Judicial Activity Before the War Election 1844: James Polk (D) v. Henry Clay(W) Whigs: internal improvements, civilizing land Democrats: continue to expand, believed that government should have very little interaction with internal improvements (should be left in private hands). Remember: since colonial times- North was prone to more population/ cities/ community/ industry. South: less populates, farms, plantations, no need for industry. *Different voting patterns/ visions for America.
Close election, Polk won. Polk Presidency 1845-49 Pledged would only be in office for one term. Four goals: 1. 2. 3. 4. Go back to placing government funds in the Treasury cut tariffs Oregon
California Proposes Annexation of Texas Demanded the entirety of Oregon County (balance) 54-40 or fight Oregon Treaty (1846) a more reasonable American-Canadian border Continued. Focused on efforts to claim S.W territories from Mexico Tries to buy territories- fails Mexico attacks (already annoyed) Polk uses attack as excuse
Mexican-American War (1846) Does not have everyones support (North v. South) Slave Power Rejection of Wilmot Proviso Whigs Split FreeSoil Party (single issue) Continued Mexican War Continues: Texas easy deep into So. Mexico & West. Mexico City ends war Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) Mexican Cession
Increases the nations wealth (gold) also increases sectional issues (slavery) Nation already divided on the slavery issue AND there were states S of Missouri Compromise, West of the Mississippi were plantation crops were not allowed. Threatens Southerners popular sovereignty Compromise of 1850 Sectional strife started immediately Gold rush brought in many settlers (very populated) & wanted statehood (Free State)
Opposed by South Threaten with secession Immediate response: Stephen Douglas (D) & Henry Clay (W) work on Compromise of 1850 California free, stronger fugitive slave laws, Utah & New Mexico popular sovereignty, abolishes slave trade in D.C Popular Sovereignty creates problems: very vague- open interpretation Fugitive slave acts also creates issues: North feels forced to comply with slavery Continued Anti-Slavery in the North grows Uncle Toms Cabin (1852)- Harriet Beecher Stowe
LITERATURE THAT CHANGES THE COURSE OF U.S HISTORY!!.... Again! Propaganda that worked anti-slavery sentiments in the North grew. Kansas-Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas After California- no admittance until 1858 Status of new territories continue to grow more problematic Kansas-Nebraska Territory No government at the moment Order must be imposed
Wanted land security (from Natives) Construction supervision Stephen Douglas attempts to fix issue with the Kansas-Nebraska act (1854) Popular sovereignty Repels Missouri Compromise Who would this upset? Why? Continued Norths Direct Response: Personal Liberty Laws Fugitive slaves would have the right to a trial by jury
Right to a lawyer Ends the Free-Soil Party, Enter Republicans Goes from political parties to sectional parties Many joined Northern Democrats or joined FreeSoilers (also defeated by Kansas-Nebraska Act) Republicans Not originally abolitionists but dedicated to keep slavery out of the territories Also campaigned a larger group of issues Continued Other party formed: Know-Nothings Met privately
Secretive Single issue party Seemed biggest competitor for Democrats Quick growth Racist/ nativists anti-German & Irish Party dies on the issues on slavery: N & S wings disagreements Continued Violence erupts at the Kansas-Nebraska territories Due to popular sovereignty both sides rush to the territory with one specific goal. Border Ruffians two different constitutions Topeka (antislavery) & Lecompton (pro)
Doughface President Franklin Pierce accepts the Lecompton Constitution Kansas slave territory demolished free-soil cities Bleeding Kansas: John Browns raid More Violence- in Congress Preston Brooks/ Sen. Andrew Butler beats Senator Charles Sumner Pierces career destroyed James Buchanan (1856) Buchanan, Dread Scot & Election of 1860
Election of 1856 Buchanan wins South North: Buchanan and Fremont (R) Tries to maintain status quo : 1. enforce fugitive slave law 2. Opposition to abolition in South & West. Dred Scott v. Sandford Not considered citizen, therefore, cant sue Considered private poverty, unconstitutional for government to get involved. Nullifies: N.W Ordinance, Missouri Compromise, KansasNebraska
Major victory for Southerners/ turning point Continued 1858 Elections Lincoln Douglas debates for Illinois Senate Seat. Douglas wishy-washy on his stance on popular sovereignty Lincoln: House Divided Speech Douglas: Freeport Doctrine (defending popular sovereignty) Slavery could not exist where certain laws wont protect it. Hmmm what about the Dred Scott decision? Lincoln does not win this election but sure wins the presidential election (1860)
John Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859) Hopes to spark a slave revolt, fails Martyr for the cause 1860 Presidential Election
Democrats: split North (Douglas) and South (John Breckinridge) North: Lincoln & Douglas South: Democrat- Breckinridge & Constitutional Union Party (John Bell). Lincoln didnt even appear on the Southern ballot. Lincoln wins without a single southern vote. Southerners immediate response: secession. South proposes Crittendon Compromise: Lincoln refuses to compromise Dec. 1860 South Carolina secedes Eventually six states follow Confederate States of America. President: Jefferson Davis Continued
Lincoln decides to wait until South makes first move. April 12, 1861 Fort Sumter Lincoln then declares war Civil War and Reconstruction 1860-1877 Although slavery was the issue that caused Civil War, War not purely about slavery initially. (not until emancipation) Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland & Delaware) Took place on economical, social and political battlefields
Civil War & the Confederacy Confederacy fighting for states rights Irony behind it all: central government (Davis) took control of much of the lands economy. Martial law Economic progress and downfall Poverty
Draft greater poverty Class conflict Exemptions for the rich Hmmm Another Quartering Act? Civil war and the Union Economic boost war goods produced in the North (manufacture) Corruption (precursor to the Gilded Age) Inflation occurred (not as bad as the So.) Unions are formed (another precursor). Some blacklisted violence Central Governments power increases
Implemented programs without approval Suspends habeas corpus drafts, P.O.Ws Control of economy (Salmon P. Chase greenbacks) Emancipation of the Slaves Initially war was not fought on the basis of ended slavery. Some sought gradual emancipation and colonizing free slaves in Africa Progressive group in North: Radical Republicans- immediate emancipation Confiscation Acts: (1861) government has the right to seize any slaves used for revolutionary reasons. (1862) liberate slaves owned by any supporter of the
rebellion (Confederacy) Lincoln refused to enforce cautious towards emancipation. Continued Slaves indirectly supported the South. Influenced some main strategies used by North Freed slaves = many positive effects for North. Keeps outside countries out of the war New source of troops for the Union Lincoln would not make first move until Northern victory Antietam Emancipation Emancipation Proclamation
Changes focus of war NOW fought for slavery. (Kind of like the Declaration of Independence in the Revolutionary War) Does not free ALL slaves only those held in the states of rebellion Gives the South a chance to come back into the Union without actually ending slavery. Even then, Lincolns goal was not to actually end slavery but to preserve the Union. Until campaigning for re-election Thirteenth Amendment Hampton Roads Conference settlements with the South. Election of 1864 and End of Civil War
Lincoln v. General George McClellan (North) Public opinion: against war South: less than 1% actually owned slaves North: War Democrats v. Copperheads NYC Draft Riots of 1863: nativism. Irish Immigrants resented being drafted into war job competition. Lincoln wins re-election 1865 Union Victory assured Freedmans Bureau April 1865: Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Court House
Aftermath 3 million men fought in the war 500,000 killed another 500,000 wounded Economy for North and South ruined Shermans March Southern resources gone Politically: expands the role of government, permanently Reconstruction and Andrew Johnsons impeachment 5 days after Lee surrenders, Abe Lincoln killed by Booth Andrew Johnson (V.P becomes President)
Had to deal with the three major questions: What conditions would the Southern states be readmitted to the Union? What would be the status of blacks in postwar nation? What would be done with rebels? Reconstruction 1865-77 Process begun even before War ended. Lincoln wanted to preserve the union (main goal) Ten Percent Plan Continued
Congress had another vision: Radical Republicans saw the South as conquered territory Harsh punishment Lincoln to lenient: Wade-Davis Bill Confederates be ruled by military governor 50 % State convention would abolish slavery and repeal ordinance if necessary Lincoln pocket-vetoes Assassinated following year Andrew Johnson Strong supporter of Lincolns views
War ends, congress in recess for 8 months Johnson deals with first part of Reconstruction on his own. Johnsons Reconstruction Plan: Provisional government will run states until ready to enter union Loyalty oath Prohibited Slave owners/ Southern elite from re-entry Did not require states to enfranchise blacks. Pardoned many Southern elite Congress reconvenes, not pleased with Johnsons plan Continued Radical Republicans Harsh punishment revenge? Special Field Order No. 15; land taken from Confederates given to new freedmen
Johnson rescinded order; 40 acres and a mule Much tensions between Congress and President Radical Republicans Congressional Reconstruction 14th Amendment (citizenship) also a loop for Jim Crow laws. Continued 14th Amendment: clarified status of the freed
slaved and hoped it will force suffrage. Johnsons response: Swing Around the Circle tour campaigned against amendment 1866 Congress heavily weighed on the radical end of the spectrum Military Reconstruction Act (1867) Martial Law in South, forced to allow blacks to vote (conventional delegates), ratify 14th Amendment Passed laws limiting Presidents power Johnson impeached (tenure of office act) but acquitted Ulysses S. Grant 15th Amendment proposed (1869)- suffrage Only passed because Southern States forced to vote in favor of it.
Unfortunately his administration was heavily packed with scandals. No political experience but war hero Spoils system Reconstruction- Failure SOME success: ALL men could now vote, not just property owners
Many appointed government positions replaced with elected ones. Stimulated industrial growth However, ultimately failed Plans to help rebuild south very costly More hostility towards reconstruction due to high taxes Propaganda War: Scalawags (Southerners who cooperated) & Carpetbaggers (Northerners who ran programs) Corruption (selling votes for $ and favors) North as well as the South (political machines & bosses- Reconstruction Fails (Continued) War of Intimidation
Ku Klux Klan White League Attorney General Amos Akerman Southern officials failed to do anything to protect blacks Reconstruction did nothing to redistribute Souths wealth 1869 Government sends signals that would ease
restrictions Slaughter House Cases: United States v. Reese: grandfather clauses Grants corruption taints everything Continued 1872- Liberal Republicans hoped to end control of the South (angered by corruption) Candidate: Horace Greeley. Gains congressionally & State elections Grant moves farther away from radicalism Amnesty Acts of 1872 Panic of 1873 1876 Southern Democrats regained control: Redeemers (reverse Republican Reconstruction)
Election of 1876 Most contested election. Fraud Samuel J. Tilden went after Boss Tweed. Won the popular vote but not electoral vote Congress creates bipartisan electoral commission Compromise of 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes wins Back to normal in the south Southern Blacks During and After Reconstruction
Several interpretations of freedom Many became sharecroppers, searched for family, freedmans bureau (new jobs & housing, education) although eventually died down. Found communities and formed bonds within black churches Many moved away after reconstruction (Great Migration- after WWI) Do the Ch. 9 Drill & Reflection Pg. 168-169
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