The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans FCS February

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans FCS February

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans FCS February Update, 2016 Presented by Mary Meck Higgins, Ph.D., R.D., L.D., FAND (Fellow of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics), KSRE Human Nutrition Specialist These slides will be on KSRE Extension Food, Nutrition,

Dietetics and Healths site, www.ksre.k-state.edu/humannutrition Click the faculty/staff link. An abbreviation used throughout this presentation is DGA, Dietary Guidelines for Americans Outline of Todays Session

Review the DGA Advisory Committees report Overview of 2015-2020 DGA Key elements of healthful eating patterns Guidelines #1, #2, #3 + Key Recommendations Shifts needed to align with healthful eating patterns, Guideline #4 Everyone has a role in supporting healthful eating patterns, Guideline #5

Today, as I review the new DGA, I will not repeat the information from my 8/2015 presentation about the DGA Advisory Committees Report. Please refer to those slides again, as desired, at Extension Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Healths site. Click the faculty/staff link. 2015-2020 DGA are 8th edition

Adapted from: http://extension.usu.edu/mpr/files/uploads/PowerPoints/ ATagtow_MPRO_SNAP-ED_Presentation_Final_April_2015.pdf The 2015-2020 DGA Available online, at www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines PDF file is 213 pages Published 1/7/2016 by USDAs Center for Nutrition Policy and

Promotion, and U.S. Health & Human Services (HHS) Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion The 2015-2020 DGA Will be the basis for KSREs nutrition education activities for the general public for the next 5 years The DGA 2015-2020 are not expressly written for the public

Many consumer resources describing the DGA messages will be published soon www.choosemyplate.gov/dietary-guidelines The DGA Translate science into food-based guidance. Why? Their main purpose is to inform Federal food, nutrition and health policies and programs (e.g., school lunch, older adult meal programs), including educational programs

The primary intended audiences are policymakers, and nutrition and health professionals / educators The DGA Translate science into food-based guidance. Why? To promote health, healthy body weights, and prevention of chronic diseases Even though the DGA arent primarily for the general public, theyre a good source of

advice for individuals + families on healthful food/physical activity choices (for those ages 2+ yrs, including people at-risk for chronic diseases) Improvement Is Needed 1/2 of U.S. adults have 1 or more preventable diet-related chronic dx Heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type 2 diabetes, obesity, poor bone health/ osteoporosis, some cancers (breast/

colorectal/others) Improvement Is Needed The U.S. has: A long history of high rates of diet-related preventable chronic dx Low progress toward meeting 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommendations: average adherence is only 58% (There has been some progress: it was just 49% in 2000) A great need to improve both dietary and

physical activity education and behaviors across the entire U.S. population Improvement Is Achievable Eating a healthful diet that is Energy balanced, and Provides sufficient intake of nutrients, and Does not exceed intake of over-consumed nutrients can be achieved, and will result in positive health outcomes, but will require shifts from

current typical U.S. dietary practices THE 2015-2020 DGA FOCUS ON EATING PATTERNS AND THEIR FOOD AND NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS Definition Eating Pattern or Dietary Pattern The foods + beverages that make up ones complete dietary intake over time A customary way of eating

The result of choices on many eating occasions over time, both at home and away from home Consist of multiple + interacting food components Are more predictive of overall health status and disease risk than are the individual foods or nutrients consumed Definition A healthful eating pattern

A combination of foods thats linked to good health when eaten with regularity Consuming one helps a person: Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight Obtain adequate nutrients Reduce his or her risk of chronic disease Can be tailored to meet an individuals: Personal, cultural and traditional preferences Budget

The 2015-2020 DGA includes: An introduction, 3 chapters and 14 appendices 5 general guidelines Numerous specific key recommendations 3 sample healthful eating patterns The 2015-2020 DGA includes: 14 appendices #1, Physical Activity Guidelines

#3, Healthy U.S.-style eating pattern #4, Mediterranean-style eating pattern #5, Healthy vegetarian eating pattern (no red meats, poultry or seafood) #14, food safety principles and guidance Others: definitions, calorie needs, food sources of nutrients, more 3 chapters, 5 guidelines Chapter 1, Key Elements of Healthful Eating Patterns; Guidelines #1, #2, #3

+ the Key Recommendations Chapter 2, Guideline #4: Shifts Needed To Align with Healthful Eating Patterns Chapter 3, Guideline #5: Everyone Has a Role in Supporting Healthful Eating Patterns CHAPTER 1, KEY ELEMENTS OF HEALTHFUL EATING PATTERNS

#1 of Five Guidelines 1. Eat a healthful eating pattern across the lifespan All food and beverage choices matter Choose a healthful eating pattern at an appropriate calorie level The best way to determine whether an eating pattern is at an appropriate number of calories is to monitor body weight Adjust calorie intake, and expenditures in

physical activity, based on changes in weight over time Key Recommendations A healthful eating pattern includes: A variety of vegetables from all of the subgroupsdark green, red and orange, legumes, starchy and other Fruits, especially whole fruits Grains, at least half of which are whole grains

Key Recommendations A healthful eating pattern includes: Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese and/or fortified soy beverages A variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes, and nuts, seeds and soy products Liquid oils high in unsaturated fats Note: Chapter 1 describes the best food

choices and DGA amounts for each group, and nutrients they provide. Key Recommendations A healthful eating pattern limits: Saturated fats and trans fats Consume less than 10% of calories/day from saturated fats Added sugars: less than 10% of calories/day Sodium: less than 2,300 mg/day of sodium

Alcohol: If consumed, up to 1 drink/day for women who are not pregnant, + up to 2 drinks/day for men Use only by adults of legal drinking age Key Recommendations Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods, especially nutrient-dense foods All forms of foods can be included: Fresh, canned, dried, frozen, juiced

Cooked, raw Fortified foods /dietary supplements are useful in some cases Such as for folic acid, iron, vitamin D Key Recommendations People of all ages should meet HHS Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans To help promote health and reduce the risk

of chronic disease The relationship between diet and physical activity contributes to calorie balance and managing body weight Sample Healthy Eating Pattern Healthy U.S.-style eating pattern versus typical U.S. diet: Both are based on the types + proportions of foods typically consumed in the U.S. But, with the healthy eating pattern:

The foods are in nutrient-dense forms, and The amounts recommended reflect those associated with positive health outcomes. The same as the 2010 DGA USDA Food Pattern Advice about Body Weight All Americans should aim to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight To lose weight, most people need to reduce the number of calories they get from foods/ beverages and increase physical activity

Overweight pregnant women should: Gain weight within the gestational weight gain guidelines Advice about Body Weight All Americans should aim to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight Overweight children + adolescents should: Change their eating and physical activity behaviors to maintain or reduce their rate of weight gain while linear growth occurs

Overweight + obese adults should: Change their eating and physical activity behaviors to prevent additional weight gain and/or promote weight loss Advice about Body Weight Overweight adults 65 years or older should: Prevent additional weight gain. Obese older adults, particularly those with risk factors for heart disease, may find intentional weight loss

to be beneficial and result in improved quality of life and reduced risk of chronic diseases and associated disabilities More details are provided in the DGA #2 of Five Guidelines 2. Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount to meet nutrient needs within calorie limits Choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods

across and within all food groups in DGA amounts Definition Variety A diverse assortment of foods + beverages across and within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits for calories and other dietary components

Example in the vegetables food group: Each week, choosing dark green, red and orange, legumes, starchy and other vegetables Definition Nutrient dense foods + beverages Nutrient-dense foods and beverages are naturally lean or low in solid fats, and have little or no added solid fats, sugars, refined starches or sodium Ideally, they also are in forms that retain

naturally-occurring components, such as dietary fiber Definition Nutrient dense foods + beverages Most food choices are not in nutrient-dense forms from most of the food groups, as they are typically consumed in the U.S. Examples: When prepared with little or no added solid fats, sugars, refined starches or sodium, all

vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fatfree and low-fat dairy products, and lean meats and poultry #3 of Five Guidelines 3. Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake Consume an eating pattern low in added sugars, saturated fats and sodium Cut back on foods and beverages higher in

added sugars, saturated fats or sodium to amounts that fit within healthful eating patterns #3 of Five Guidelines 3. Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake Examples of foods high in added sugars: Sugar-sweetened soda; Sugary snacks; Sweets

Examples of foods high in saturated fats: Ice cream; Cheeseburger; Coconut oil Examples of foods high in sodium: Pizza; Deli meat / cold cuts sandwiches CHAPTER 2, SHIFTS NEEDED TO ALIGN WITH HEALTHFUL EATING PATTERNS NOTE: This is a long chapter!

#4 of Five Guidelines 4. Shift to healthier foods, beverages Choose nutrient-dense foods and beverages across and within all food groups, instead of eating less healthful foods Consider cultural and personal preferences to make shifts in choices easier to accomplish and maintain Make substitutions rather than increasing intake overall

Current U.S. Eating Pattern 75% have an eating pattern low in vegetables, fruits, dairy, oils 50% meet or exceed total grain + total protein DGA amounts, but eat too little of foods in the subgroups Most have an eating pattern too high in added sugars, saturated fats, sodium, total calories Current U.S. Eating Pattern compared to DGA 2015

Note: The center is the DGA goal or limit Note: To

improve, shift orange bars to the center Shifts Needed to Align 4. Shift to healthier foods, beverages Foods in many food groups, as they are typically eaten in the U.S., are not in

nutrient-dense forms Contain added calories from added sugars, added refined starches and/or solid fats Consuming added sugars, refined starches and solid fats makes it hard to meet nutrient needs while staying within calorie limits Shifting is needed to align with the DGA Shifts Needed to Align 4. Shift to healthier foods, beverages

17 examples of eating pattern shifts needed This chapter methodically reviews Each food group to encourage Each type of food to limit Offers details on why and how to shift intakes Shifts Needed To Align Example 1 - Shift to balance calories How? Shift to eating nutrient-dense foods instead of making typical food choices containing

added sugars, added refined starches and/or solid fats, and Shift to eating reduced portion sizes of foods and beverages that are not nutrient-dense Shifts Needed To Align Example 2 - Shift to eating more vegetables. How? Include vegetables in most meals and snacks Choose a green salad or a vegetable side dish Shift to choosing vegetables instead of some

meats, poultry, cheeses and snack foods Increase the vegetables in mixed dishes and decrease the refined grains or meats in them Eat a variety of vegetables: dark greens, red/orange, starchy, legumes, others Shifts Needed To Align Example 3 - Shift to eating more fruit. How? Choose fruit as a snack Add fruit to salads

Choose fruit as a side dish Eat fruit for dessert instead of eating sugary foods (such as cakes, pies, cookies, donuts, ice cream or candies) Shifts Needed To Align Example 4 - Shift to make half of all grains consumed be whole grains. How? Shift from refined to whole-grain breads, pasta and brown rice

Select foods that have whole grains listed as the first grain ingredient in the ingredients list Cut back on eating cakes, cookies and pastries Choose whole-grain and refined-grain foods in nutrient-dense forms Shifts Needed To Align Example 5 - Shift to eat more grain foods in a nutrient-dense form. How? Choose plain popcorn instead of buttered Choose bread instead of a croissant

Choose an English muffin instead of a biscuit Choose nutrient-dense forms of both wholegrain and refined-grain foods Shifts Needed To Align Example 6 - Shift to consuming more dairy products. How? Drink fat-free or low-fat milk or a fortified soy beverage with meals Choose yogurt as a snack Use yogurt as an ingredient in prepared dishes, such as salad dressings or spreads

Shifts Needed To Align Example 7 - Shift to consuming dairy products in nutrient-dense forms. How? Choose lower fat versions of milk, yogurt and cheeses, instead of whole milk products and regular cheeses Choose fat-free or low-fat milk and yogurt Choose fat-free or low-fat fortified soy beverages (soymilk)

Shifts Needed To Align Example 8 - Shift to choosing more varied protein food choices. How? Increase seafood intake by incorporating it as the protein foods choice in meals twice per week, instead of meat, poultry or eggs Choose a salmon steak or a tuna sandwich Use legumes, nuts or seeds in mixed dishes, instead of some meat or poultry

Choose a bean chili or add almonds to a main-dish salad Shifts Needed To Align Example 9 Some need to shift to lesser amounts of some protein foods Average weekly intakes of red meats, poultry and eggs are above recommended amounts for teen boys and adult men ages 14-18: average 38, recommended 26-34 oz ages 19-30: average 44, recommended 31-34 oz

ages 31-50: average 45, recommended 29-34 oz ages 51-70: average 40, recommended 26-34 oz Shifts Needed To Align Example 9 - Some need to shift to lesser amounts of some protein foods Why should we care? Lower intakes of fresh red meats, processed red meats and processed poultry than the typical U.S. diet are associated with Reduced risk of heart disease

Possibly of reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and some cancers Shifts Needed To Align Example 9 - Some need to shift to lesser amounts of some protein foods. How? Shift towards choosing DGA amounts of meats, poultry and eggs Instead, eat more seafood, legumes or choices from other under-consumed food groups

Shifts Needed To Align Example 10 - Shift to eating protein foods that are more nutrient-dense. How? Choose lean or lower-fat versions Choose lower sodium options Shifts Needed To Align Example 10 - Shift to eating protein foods that are more nutrient-dense

Include processed red meats/poultry, if desired, only if the eating pattern also stays within limits for sodium, saturated fats, calories + added sugars Common processed red meats/poultry are: Bacon Hot dogs Sausages Ham Pastrami

Luncheon/deli meats Shifts Needed To Align Example 11 - Shift to consuming oils instead of solid fats. How? When cooking, use vegetable oil instead of solid fats (e.g., butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, coconut oil) Increase intake of seafood and nuts, in place of some meat and poultry Choose salad dressings and spreads made

with oils instead of solid fats Shifts Needed To Align Example 12 - Shift to reduce added sugars to less than 10% of calories/d Why should we care? This shift is associated with Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in adults May also reduce risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer in adults

Shifts Needed To Align Example 12 - Shift to reduce added sugars to less than 10% of calories/d. How? If you drink sugar-sweetened beverages (Regular soft drinks; Fruit drinks; Sweetened coffee and tea; Sport drinks; Energy drinks; Beverages containing alcohol; Flavored waters): Drink them less often Reduce portion sizes

Shifts Needed To Align Example 12 - Shift to reduce added sugars to less than 10% of calories/d. How? Instead of sugar-sweetened beverages, drink Water and other beverages with no added sugars Low-fat or fat-free milk 100% fruit or vegetable juice within recommended amounts

Beverages low in added sugars Shifts Needed To Align Example 12 - Shift to reduce added sugars to less than 10% of calories/d Limit how often you eat desserts and sweet snacks, or decrease portion sizes of them: Grain-based types: cakes, pies, cookies, brownies, donuts, sweet rolls, pastries Dairy-based types: ice cream, other frozen desserts, puddings

Sweets: candies, sugars, jams, syrups, sweetened toppings Shifts Needed To Align Example 12 - Shift to reduce added sugars to less than 10% of calories/d. How? Choose yogurt and other dairy foods that have no added sugars Choose unsweetened or no-sugar-added versions of canned fruit and fruit sauces

(e.g., applesauce) Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats to less than 10% of calories/day Why should we care? This shift is associated with reduced risk of heart attacks and death from heart disease This shift will substantially reduce excess calories in the typical U.S. diet

Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats to less than 10% of calories/d Solid fats are added to many foods + are Fats that are solid at room temperature The major source of saturated fats in the U.S. Foods high in saturated fats include: Coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil,

hydrogenated vegetable oils, meats that are not labeled as lean, poultry fats, butter, cream, cheeses, whole milk Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats Dietary solid/saturated fats are mainly in: Mixed dishes containing cheese, meat or both, such as burgers, sandwiches, tacos, pizza; Snacks + sweets; Protein foods; Dairy products

Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats to less than 10% of calories/d. How? Replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fats, while also keeping total dietary fats within DGA levels Note: Replacing total dietary fat or saturated fats with carbohydrates is NOT associated with reduced risk of heart disease

Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats. How? Change ingredients in mixed dishes to increase the amounts of vegetables, whole grains, lean meat, and low-fat or fat-free cheese, instead of putting some of the fatty meat and/or regular cheese in the dish Prepare foods using oils high in polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats,

instead of using foods high in saturated fats Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats. How? Read food labels to choose foods (esp. snack foods, sweets + dairy products) lower in saturated fats, and higher in polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats Eat smaller portions of foods high in saturated fats, and/or eat them less often

Use oil-based dressings + spreads on foods, not those made from solid fats (e.g., butter, stick margarine, cream cheese) Shifts Needed To Align Example 13 - Shift to reduce intake of saturated and solid fats. How? Choose lower-fat versions of foods + beverages that contain saturated fats Lean cuts of meat, not fatty cuts

Skinless poultry; discard the skin Fat-free or low-fat milk, not 2% or whole milk Low-fat or fat-free cheeses, not regular cheeses Fat-free creams and yogurt, not regular types Shifts Needed To Align Example 14 - Shift food choices to reduce sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg/day Why should we care? This shift is associated with reduced blood

pressure Most people typically consume too much sodium/day: For adult men, the average intake is 4,240 mg For adult women, the average is 2,980 mg Shifts Needed To Align Example 14 - Shift food choices to reduce sodium intake. How? Read the Nutrition Facts label (esp. for pizza, pasta dishes, sauces, soups, other mixed

dishes, protein foods + grain foods) Choose foods with less sodium per serving Choose low-sodium, reduced-sodium and nosalt-added forms of high sodium foods If eating foods high in sodium, reduce portion sizes and/or eat them less often Shifts Needed To Align Example 14 - Shift food choices to reduce sodium intake. How? Choose fresh poultry, seafood, pork and red meats, not processed meat and poultry

Eat at home more often Limit cooking with sauces, mixes and instant products, including flavored rice, instant noodles, and ready-made pasta Flavor foods with herbs and spices, not salt Use minimal amounts of salt at the table Shifts Needed To Align Example 15 - Shift to moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption, if

any. How? 37% of U.S. adults dont limit alcohol intake to moderate amounts 1x or more/month 5 to 10% of U.S. adults dont limit caffeine intake to moderate amounts, or 400 mg/day Coffee and tea provide 70 to 90% of caffeine intake for adults Shifts Needed To Align Example 16 - Shift to eating more vegetables, fruits, whole grains and

dairy, as noted previously Why should we care? This shift will increase intake of the underconsumed nutrients of public health concern Dietary fiber Potassium Calcium Vitamin D Shifts Needed To Align Example 17 For some, shift to eating more dietary iron

Who? Young children; Adolescent girls and women capable of becoming pregnant; Women who are pregnant How? Eat foods with heme iron, such as lean meats, poultry and seafood Eat legumes, dark-green vegetables, foods enriched or fortified with iron; and eat vitamin C-rich foods when eating these foods Current U.S. Physical Activity

20% of adults meet guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity; 80% do not meet them 30% of adults report engaging in NO leisure time physical activity Physical activity related to work, home and transportation has declined in recent decades Shifts Needed To Align Shifts are needed to increase

physical activity instead of being sedentary so often To meet recommendations of Physical Activity Guidelines, the U.S. public should: Increase time spent doing aerobic physical activities Do muscle strengthening activities 2 days/week Limit screen time and sedentary time Shifts Needed To Align Summary of Shifts Needed

Every food choice is a chance to move toward a more healthful eating pattern We have many opportunities each day to make shifts to improve our eating patterns Some needed shifts will require effort to accomplish, others will be minor Small shifts in food choices at a certain meal/snack time, or on a certain day, or in a certain place, can make big differences if sustained over time

CHAPTER 3, EVERYONE HAS A ROLE IN SUPPORTING HEALTHFUL EATING PATTERNS #5 of Five Guidelines 5. Everyone has a role in supporting healthful eating patterns for all Help support individuals/families to choose healthful eating patterns in multiple settings: Where we live, learn, work, play and shop

Homes; Schools; Work sites; Stores; Restaurants; Communities Help make healthful lifestyle choices be: Easy, accessible, affordable, and the normal or usual choices made #5 of Five Guidelines 5. Everyone has a role in supporting healthful eating patterns for all The chapter describes:

Factors that influence eating + physical activity behaviors, using the social-ecological model Ways to implement strategies to help individuals align their eating patterns with the DGA Need multiple efforts by: Educators, health professionals, communities, businesses and industries, organizations, governments, and other segments of society

#5 of Five Guidelines 5. Everyone has a role in supporting healthful eating patterns for all Help improve everyones access to healthy, safe and affordable food choices Help improve household food security Help improve acculturation by encouraging immigrants to: Retain healthful aspects of their eating and physical activity patterns, and

Avoid adopting behaviors that are less healthful #5 of Five Guidelines 5. Everyone has a role in supporting healthful eating patterns for all Help improve social/cultural norms and values To embrace, support and maintain Healthful eating patterns Physical activity behaviors

Support healthful eating patterns At home Individuals and families can try out small changes to find what works for them, such as Drink water more often, instead of sweetened beverages Add more veggies to favorite dishes Plan and cook more meals at home Be physically active when spending time with family and friends

Limit screen time and time spent sitting down Support healthful eating patterns At child care centers and schools Staff can Improve the selection of healthful food choices in cafeterias and vending machines Offer menu labeling for food choices Provide nutrition education programs and school gardens

Increase school-based physical activity Encourage parents and caregivers to promote active play and healthful eating at home Support healthful eating patterns At work Worksite personnel can: Encourage physical activity breaks, walking meetings, standing desks Offer healthful food options in the cafeteria,

vending machines, and at staff meetings or sponsored functions Provide health and wellness programs and nutrition counseling Offer flexible schedules that allow for physical activity Support healthful eating patterns In shopping sites Managers of grocery stores, concession

stands, other food retail outlets, food service establishments, other businesses selling foods can: Provide healthful food choices Display healthful food choices more prominently than less-healthful choices Inform consumers about making healthful changes Support healthful eating patterns

In communities Community leaders can: Offer classes that teach skills to support healthy eating patterns, including Gardening, food preparation/cooking, meal planning, food label reading Increase access to affordable healthful food choices through community gardens, farmers markets, food banks, homeless shelters Create walkable communities by maintaining

safe public spaces Summary of 2015-2020 DGA 3 building blocks of healthy lifestyles = Eating vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, protein foods. ------ Eating limited amounts of saturated fats, added sugars, sodium, alcohol. ------

Being physically active. DGA RESOURCES from Extension Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health DGA Resources On Extension Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Healths website, in Nutrition Topics section

Getting started with MyPlate Older Adults site On right sidebar: Weekly menu planning tool Outlines how to eat the Healthy U.S.-style eating pattern for a week Healthy sustainable diets DGA Resources DGA Resources

Healthy U.S.-style Eating Pattern Sustainability Issues 2015-2020 DGA dont include as a factor the goal of sustainability Evaluating the natural resources required + environmental impacts of a food source Sustainability issues were in the DGA Advisory Committees scientific report USDA/HHS said sustainability is

Outside the scope of the DGA, as mandated by the 1990 National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act An important policy conversation, but the DGA are not the appropriate vehicle for this DGA Resources b u P

l l i U t s KS , 0 6 0

3 MF t n e r r cu The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

FCS February Update, 2016 Presented by Mary Meck Higgins, Ph.D., R.D., L.D., FAND (Fellow of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics), KSRE Human Nutrition Specialist

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