Origin of Life & Bacteria CH 27 Universe

Origin of Life & Bacteria CH 27  Universe

Origin of Life & Bacteria CH 27 Universe formed 15 billion years ago (Big Bang) Galaxies formed from stars, dust and gas Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago

Suns energy stripped away 1st atmosphere 2nd atmosphere formed from volcanic outgassing Primitive atmosphere: CO2, water vapor, lesser amts of CO, N2, H2, HCl, and traces of NH3 and CH4 (3.5 bya)

O2 came in 1.5 bya Autotrophic Organisms: photosynthesis Another environmental change Result in evolution 0.5 billion years ago Atmosphere O2 to 1% current Compare to present: 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.04% CO2, + trace gasses

Relatively small, most single cell Start of multicellularity Increase in cell complexity Life began~ 3.5 bya Organic molecules (C H O N P S) swimming in shallow seas Stage 1: Abiotic synthesis of organic

molecules such as proteins, amino acids and nucleotides Stage 2: joining of small molecules (monomers) into large molecules Stage 3: origin of self-replicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible

Stage 4: packaging these molecules into pre-cells, droplets of molecules with membranes that maintained an internal chemistry Thomas Huxley- Search for origin of life Bathybias heckaliprimordial ooze

Wyville Thompson: HMS Challenger (1872-1876) found it was actually diatomacous ooze reacting with seawater and ethyl alcohol Miller and Ureys Experiment ELECTRICITY!!! Organic molecules like amino acids

Produced: 20 amino acids Several sugars Lipids Purine and pyrimidine bases (found in DNA, RNA & ATP) Concept 27.4: Molecular

systematics is illuminating prokaryotic phylogeny Until the late 20th century, systematists based prokaryotic taxonomy on phenotypic criteria Applying molecular systematics to the investigation of prokaryotic phylogeny has produced dramatic results Lessons from Molecular

Systematics Molecular systematics led to the splitting of prokaryotes into bacteria and archaea Molecular systematists continue to work on the phylogeny of prokaryotes 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.15

Euryarchaeotes Crenarchaeotes UNIVERSAL ANCESTOR Nanoarchaeotes Domain Archaea

Korarchaeotes Domain Eukarya Eukaryotes Proteobacteria

Spirochetes Cyanobacteria Gram-positive bacteria Domain Bacteria Chlamydias

The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has allowed for more rapid sequencing of prokaryote genomes A handful of soil may contain 10,000 prokaryotic species Horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes obscures the root of the tree of life

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 27.UN02 Eukarya Archaea Bacteria

Table 27.2 Archaea Archaea share certain traits with bacteria and other traits with eukaryotes 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria are CHEMICALLY DISTINCT from other BACTERIA in several ways: 1. The Cell Walls, Cell Membranes, and Ribosomal RNA are different from those of other BACTERIA. No PEPTIDOGLYCAN. 2. Extremophiles 3. The PREFIX "ARCHEA" means ANCIENT. 4. Archaebacteria live in conditions similar to when life first appeared and began to evolve.

Archaebacteria Types Methanogens sewage Thermoacidophiles Hot springs Great salt lakes

Extreme Halophiles Archaebacteria Purple sulfur bacteria Chemosynthesis

6CO2+6H2O+3H2SC6H12O6+3H2SO 4 Kingdom Monera Species number low (~17, 000), but most numerous on Earth 3.5 byo Two Divisions

Eubacteria (Bacteria & Cyanobacteria) Archaebacteria Kingdom Monera Prokaryotic

Single-celled Diverse energy types: Chemoautotrophic- Purple sulfur bacteria Photoautotrophic- cyanobacteria

Heterotrophic- E. coli saprobes parasites Kingdom Monera

Some with cell walls, but cell walls composed of peptidoglycan, not cellulose (as in higher plants). Asexual and sexual reproduction Kingdom Monera

Eubacteria pneumonia pneumonia cyanobacteria cyanobacteria anthrax

anthrax BASIC SHAPES OF EUBACTERIA ROD-SHAPED SPHERICAL

SPIRILLA Gram-Positive Bacteria Gram-positive bacteria include

Actinomycetes, which decompose soil Bacillus anthracis, the cause of anthrax Clostridium botulinum, the cause of botulism Some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, which can be pathogenic Mycoplasms, the smallest known cells 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Most Species of Eubacteria may be Grouped Based on Staining Gram-Negative thin layer of peptidoglycan Stain pink Endotoxins Gram-Positive

Thicker layer of peptidogycan Stain purple Exotoxins (released when bacteria die) Gram +

Gram - Gram-Positive Bacteria Streptomyces, the source of many antibiotics (SEM) Gram-Positive Bacteria

Hundreds of mycoplasmas covering a human fibroblast cell (colorized SEM) Proteobacteria These gram-negative bacteria include photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophs Some are anaerobic, and others aerobic

Figure 27.17-a Subgroup: Alpha Proteobacteria Subgroup: Beta Proteobacteria Alpha 2.5 m

Gamma Proteobacteria Delta Epsilon Rhizobium (arrows) inside a root cell of a legume (TEM) Nitrosomonas (colorized TEM)

Subgroup: Delta Proteobacteria Subgroup: Epsilon Proteobacteria Thiomargarita namibiensis containing sulfur wastes (LM) Fruiting bodies of Chondromyces crocatus, a myxobacterium (SEM)

2 m 300 m 200 m Subgroup: Gamma Proteobacteria

1 m Beta Helicobacter pylori (colorized TEM) Figure 27.17a Alpha

Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Proteobacteria Subgroup: Alpha Proteobacteria Many species are closely associated with

eukaryotic hosts Scientists hypothesize that mitochondria evolved from aerobic alpha proteobacteria through endosymbiosis Example: Rhizobium, which forms root nodules in legumes and fixes atmospheric N2 Example: Agrobacterium, which produces tumors in plants and is used in genetic engineering

Figure 27.17b 2.5 m Subgroup: Alpha Proteobacteria Rhizobium (arrows) inside a root cell of a legume (TEM)

Subgroup: Beta Proteobacteria Example: the soil bacterium Nitrosomonas, which converts NH4+ to NO2 Figure 27.17c 1 m

Subgroup: Beta Proteobacteria Nitrosomonas (colorized TEM) Subgroup: Gamma Proteobacteria Examples include sulfur bacteria such as Chromatium and pathogens such as Legionella, Salmonella, and Vibrio cholerae

Escherichia coli resides in the intestines of many mammals and is not normally pathogenic Figure 27.17d 200 m Subgroup: Gamma Proteobacteria

Thiomargarita namibiensis containing sulfur wastes (LM) Subgroup: Delta Proteobacteria Example: the slime-secreting myxobacteria Figure 27.17e

300 m Subgroup: Delta Proteobacteria Fruiting bodies of Chondromyces crocatus, a myxobacterium (SEM) Subgroup: Epsilon Proteobacteria

This group contains many pathogens including Campylobacter, which causes blood poisoning, and Helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers Gastric ulcers erosion of stomach wall; pain occurs 1-3 hrs after eating 90% of recurrent ulcers due to bacterial infection,

which destroys mucous protective barrier; Treatment- use antibiotic therapy to kill bacteria Helicobacter pylori Barry Marshal Chlamydias These bacteria are parasites that live

within animal cells Chlamydia trachomatis causes blindness and nongonococcal urethritis by sexual transmission Figure 27.17g 2.5 m

Chlamydias Chlamydia (arrows) inside an animal cell (colorized TEM) Spirochetes These bacteria are helical heterotrophs Some are parasites, including Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis, and Borrelia

burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease Figure 27.17h 5 m Spirochetes Leptospira, a spirochete

(colorized TEM) Cyanobacteria These are photoautotrophs that generate O2 Plant chloroplasts likely evolved from cyanobacteria by the process of endosymbiosis Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria Only 200 species? 40 m Blue-green algae Oscillatoria, a filamentous cyanobacterium

In different conditions they grow differently Lots of colors Photosynthetic 7,500 ? species Cyanobacteria 3.5 byo

O2 levels increase by 1.5 bya Cyanobacteria were the first organisms on Earth to do modern photosynthesis and they made the first oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. Stromatolites mainly cyanobacteria 2.8 bya in fossil record

Dominant, no herbivores Mats of cyanobacteria Red Sea Turkey Iran

Egypt Saudi Arabia Red Sea Red-pigmented Red-pigmented cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria floating floating on on the the surface surface Bad Bacteria! Bacteria Caused Diseases

Bacteria can cause the following diseases:

Tuberculosis Pneumonia Strep throat

Staph infections Scarlet fever Syphilis Gonorrhea Chlamydia Boils Tetanus Lyme disease Ear infections

Many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by bacteria. Gonorrhea Syphilus Chlamydia

salmonella Helibacter pilori E. coli anthrax Black Band disease

Botulism One group of bacteria called clostridia, can form endospores. Clostridium botulinum, produces a toxin. If canned food is not properly sterilized these endospores can become

active inside a can and the disease botulism can occur. Antibiotics Antibiotics are drugs that combat bacteria by interfering with cellular functions Penicillin interferes with cell wall production Tetracycline interferes with protein

production Sulfa drugs produced in the laboratory Broad-spectrum antibiotics will affect a wide variety of organisms Penicillin, an antibiotic, comes from molds of the genus Penicillium Notice the area of inhibition around the Penicillium.

Bacteria arent all Bad! Root Nodules Atmospheric N2 N fixer Plant roots 50% to 70% of the biological nitrogen fixation

NifTAL: NifTAL: Nitrogen Nitrogen Fixation Fixation of of Tropical Tropical Agricultural Agricultural Legumes Legumes

Nitrogen Cycle Actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin. Bacteria make Vitamin K

Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread. Saprobes help to break down dead organic matter. Bacteria make up the base of the food web

in many environments. Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurt Sewage treatment Oil Spills

Bioluminescence Bacteria Reproduction Under optimum conditions bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes. Bacteria reproduction is controlled by

various factors including : temperature and food availability. Bacteria Reproduction Asexual:binary fission Sexual: conjugation

Binary Fission It involves the copying of the DNA and the splitting into two new cells. Conjugation

Sexual reproduction One bacteria is able to transfer its DNA into another bacteria by means of a pilus (pili) Hansens Disease (Leprosy)

Mycobacterium leprae Bubonic Plague Yersinia pestis January 1900 Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotics- drugs that fight infection caused by bacteria Antibiotic resistance- when bacteria change eliminating the effectiveness of the drug designed to cure or prevent infection. How does it happen? Bacteria survive antibiotic control and continue to multiply into

resistant strains. Timeline of Antibiotic Resistance 1929- Alexander Fleming discovers the 1st antibiotic (penicillin) 1942- penicillin available through mass production 1954- 2 million lbs of antibiotics produced in the U.S. annually

1960s- various resistant strains emerging due to abused antibiotic use Today- 50 million lbs of antibiotics produced in the U.S. annually Antibiotic Resistance How it happens Diseases that have Exhibited

Antibiotic Resistance Gonorrhea Head lice Malaria

Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Streptococcus pneumoniae Typhoid fever Vancomysin/Glyco peptide intermediate

Stapylococcus aureus (VISA/GISA) Vancomycinresistant Enterococci Tuberculosis Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic Resistance on Factory Farms

Fish Vaccination

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