Modals Chapter 7 Warm up Answer these questions: What are some things that you can do now, but you couldnt do when you were a child? What are some things you will be able to do next year? What is something people should know before they move to the
United States? Who do you think will be the next president of the United States? Review! Work with a partner. What is the difference in meaning between these sentences?
She cant swim. She couldnt swim. Use can / cannot (cant) for present ability. Use could/ could not (couldnt) for past ability. Talk to your partner: What is something you can do? What is something you cant do? What is something you could do last year? What is something you couldnt do?
Work with a partner. Are there differences in meanings between the sentences in each pair? She is able to swim. She can swim She was able to swim She could swim Can and be able to both express ability. Be able to can be used in the past, present, future, present
progressive, past progressive, etc. Work with a partner. Do these sentences have the same meaning? It may rain tomorrow. It might rain tomorrow. It could rain tomorrow. Talk to your partner about
tomorrow. Use might, may, and could May, might, and could all express possibility. These sentences have the same meaning. Can you form the negative of may and might?
May not and might not. (Modern English does not use contractions with may and might.) Work with a partner. Do these two sentences have the same meaning? You may have a cookie. You can have a cookie.
May and can both express permission. These two sentences have the same meaning. Give your partner permission to do something (Example: You can borrow my pencil)
Work with a partner. Are there differences in meaning among the three sentences? Mary should study harder. Ryan ought to study harder Lisa had better study harder! All of these sentences give advice
Had better is the strongest advice. Can you form the negative of these sentences? Mary should not study harder. Lisa had better not study harder. ** ought to is not used in the negative form.
Work with a partner. Do these two sentences have the same meaning? I have to study tonight. I have got to study tonight. Have to and have got to express basically the same meaning. Have to is more commonly used.
Have got to is more informal. What are two things youve got to do tonight? What are two things you have to do tomorrow? Work with a partner. Analyze the differences between these sentences:
People use would Could you please open the window? Would you please open the window? Will you please open the window? Can you please open the window? Which two questions above do you think are the most polite?
you, could you, can you, and will you to make polite requests. The questions ask for someones help or cooperation.
Politely ask your partner to do something for you Study the form Angel can speak English Norma couldnt come to class It might rain tomorrow. It may be sunny tomorrow. The teacher should give more homework.
You had better register early. Would you please close the door? modal + base verb Study the form Vicky has to take a writing test. We have got to finish Chapter 8.
Nadia is able to speak three languages. The college ought to give us more vacations. These four constructions contain to as part of the modal. The base form is used after to. Complete this sentence with the given verbs + come. Add to where necessary.
Martha __________ to school. 1. may 2. should 3. ought 4. will not 5. could not 6. might 7. had better 8. has 9. has got
10. is able Exercise 3, p. 179 Before you listen to the sentences, decide which sentences need the word to. Add to where needed. Then listen and check your answers. Exercises 4, p. 179 Discuss the sentences with your partner.
Exercise 5 Complete the sentences orally. Complete the first time using can, cant Complete the sentences again (orally) using be able to Exercise 10, p. 183
At a soccer game There are five minutes left in the game and the score is 3-3. Our team could win. Is the speaker expressing: a. a past ability b. a present possibility c. a future possibility
At a soccer game The goalie is on the ground. He could be hurt. Is the speaker expressing: a. a past ability b. a present possibility c. a future possibility
At a soccer game Our team didnt win. We couldnt score a goal. Is the speaker expressing: a. a past ability b. a present possibility c. a future possibility
Read the sentences in exercise 15 on page 185 Does could express past, present, or future time? What is the meaning ability or possibility? Check: 2. past ability 3. present possibility 4. past ability
5. future possibility 6. present possibility Work with a new partner Read the situation out loud to your partner. Suggest possible solutions. Use could.
(Suggest possible solutions. Use could.) Lisa walked to school today. Now she wants to go home. Its raining hard. She doesnt have an umbrella, and shes wearing sandals. Example: She could
ask a friend to take her home. (Suggest possible solutions. Use could.) Joe and Joan want to get some exercise. They have a date to play tennis
this morning, but the tennis court is covered with snow. (Suggest possible solutions. Use could.) Roberto just bought a new camera. He has it at home now. He has the instruction manual. It is written in Japanese. He cant read Japanese.
He doesnt know how to operate the camera. (Suggest possible solutions. Use could.) Albert likes to travel around the world. He is 22 years old. Today he is alone in Paris. He needs to eat, and he needs a place to stay overnight.
But while he was asleep last night, someone stole his wallet. He has no money. Listen to the conversation between a husband and wife Listen again and complete the words that you hear. (page 186) Answers: 1. could be
2. might be 3. could ask 4. may be 5. can Review Do these three sentences mean the same thing? May I use your cell phone?
Can I use your cell phone? Could I use your cell phone? Yes. All three sentences have the same meaning. Read the situations. Make a polite request. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May
Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May You want to talk to your teacher privately after class. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May Youre trying to watch a movie, but some people are talking loudly.
Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May You need to use your neighbors screwdriver temporarily. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May You dont know how to use the ATM machine. Ask someone
for help. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May Youre in a restaurant. Youre thirsty. Ask the waitress for water. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May
Theres one donut left. Ask your classmate if you can eat it. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May You just bought a large TV. Ask if you can pay with a check. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May
Youre in a store. You want to try on a shirt. Ask the salesclerk. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May The woman in front of you in the theater is wearing a huge hat.
Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May You dont know where the bathroom is. Ask your classmate. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May Your friend is going to the store. You want some gum.
Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May Your friend is reading your text messages over your shoulder. This annoys you. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May You didnt hear what the teacher just said.
Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May The classroom door is open. The noise outside is loud. Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May Your friends baby is hungry. You have some food.
Use: Can, Could, Would, Will, or May Ask your teacher if you can leave early today. Giving Advice Your friend Paula has a terrible headache. What advice would you give her? (use should and ought to)
Remember: should and ought to mean the same thing. The negative of should is shouldnt. Ought to is not used in the negative. Work with a new partner Partner A, read the problems on page 191 (ex. 25) Partner B, give advice. Use should and ought to.
Review Whats the difference between should and had better? Should and had better both express advice. Had better is more urgent than should or ought to. It often implies a warning about possible bad consequences. The contraction for had better is d better. Example: Youd better not eat that meat. It looks spoiled.
Work in groups of four The first person reads the problem. The second person gives a suggestion using should The third person gives a solution using ought to The fourth person gives a solution using had better Problem Physics class
I study, but I dont understand my physics class. Its in the middle of the semester, and Im failing the course. I need a science course in order to graduate. What should* I do? (*should is usually used in questions asking for advice. Answers can contain should, had better, or ought to) Problem Dads birthday I forgot my dads birthday. I feel terrible about it. What should I do?
Problem Dinner plans I just discovered that I made dinner plans for tonight with two different people. Im supposed to meet my parents at one restaurant at 7:00, and Im supposed to meet my boss at a different restaurant across town at 8:00. What should I do? Problem Accidental theft
Samira accidentally left the grocery store with an item she didnt pay for. Her young daughter put it in Samiras shopping bag, but she didnt see it. What should Samira do? Problem Lost book I borrowed Wendys favorite book of poetry. It was special to her. A note on the inside cover said To Wendy. The authors signature was under it. Now I cant find the book. I think I lost it. What should I do?
youve got to youve got to you have to you donthave you dont have to has to Work with a partner. Is there a
difference in meaning among these sentences? Have to, have got to, and must express basically the same meaning in these sentences. I have to study tonight. Which is used most commonly in everyday I must study tonight.
speech and writing? have to I have got to study tonight. Which is used in questions? have to Must 1. is typically found in written instructions and rules. 2. is often used when adults speak to children. Discuss with a partner: Can you think of any rules using
must? (Ex. All passengers must present their passports at customs upon arrival.) Discuss with a partner: How can you say these sentences in the past? I have to study. I must study. I have got to study.
I had to study The past of all three forms (have to, must, and have got to) is had to Pronunciation Read these sentences:
I have to go to school. /hafta/ Tam has to go to school. /hasta/ /gotta/ Ive got to pass this test. Answer the questions with a partner What is something you had to do yesterday? What is something you have to do soon?
What is something you have to do after class today? Answer the questions with a partner To get a visa for the U.S., what do you have to do? Did you have to wake up early this morning? What about last Sunday? Ask and answer the question with your partner
I just bought a plant. What do I have to do to make it happy? Is it difficult to keep a pet? What do pet owners have to do? Answer the questions with a partner What is something a driver must do according to the law? What is something a driver should always do to be a safe driver?
Answer the questions with a partner What are some things a person should do to stay healthy? What are some things a person must do to stay alive? Read the passage on 195 (ex. 33) This family needs advice. What should they do? Write a letter to Mr. and Mrs. Hill. Give them advice. (Your teacher will collect this letter.)
Warm up What is the difference between these sentences? You must not ask any questions. You dont have to ask any questions. Discuss with a partner:
Which sentence (a or b) completes the idea of the given sentence? We have lots of time, so a. we must not drive so fast! b. we dont have to drive so fast. We have time, so we do not need to drive fast. There is no obligation to drive fast. Use dont have to to express lack of obligation.
Read the examples. I finished all of my homework this afternoon. I dont have to study tonight. Tomorrow is a holiday. Mary doesnt have to go to class. Dont / doesnt have to express the idea that something is not necessary. Read the examples
Bus passengers must not talk to the driver. Children, you must not play with matches. Must not expresses prohibition. (The contraction is mustnt) Work with a partner Complete the following sentences orally
Dont have to/ doesnt have to/ must not? must not You _________ drive when you are tired. Dont have to/ doesnt have to/
must not? dont have to I live a few blocks from my office. I _________ drive to work. Dont have to/ doesnt have to/ must not? doesnt have to
Liz finally got a car, so now she drives to work. She _________ take the bus. Dont have to/ doesnt have to/ must not? doesnt have to work for a living. Mr. Murphy is very wealthy. He _________
Dont have to/ doesnt have to/ must not? must not You _________ tell Dad about the birthday party. We want it to be a surprise.
Dont have to/ doesnt have to/ must not? A: Did Professor Acosta give an assignment? dont have to read Chapter 5. B: Yes, she assigned Chapters 4 and 6, but we _______ Dont have to/ doesnt have to/ must not?
must not A: Listen carefully, Kristen. If a stranger offers you a ride, you ________ get in the car. B: Yes, Mom. Practice twice! Exercise 35, p. 196
Talk with a partner: Which sentence expresses a necessity? 1. If you want to go to the movie, you must buy a ticket. 2. Nancy is yawning. She must be sleepy. Must can also be used to express a logical conclusion. The speaker uses the information in the first sentence
(ex. Nancy is yawning) to make a logical guess (Nancy is sleepy). necessity Must for logical conclusions Mary plays tennis every day. Logical conclusion
He must like that sport! Carlos ate all of the food on his plate except the pickle. Logical conclusion He must not like pickles. Practice: A: Did you offer our guests something to eat? must not be hungry yet.
B: Yes, but they didnt want anything. They _____ Practice: must be A: You havent eaten since lunch. That was hours ago. You _____ hungry. B: I am.
Practice: A: Gregory has already had four glasses of water, and now hes having another. must be thirsty. B: He _____ Practice: A: I offered Holly something to drink, but she didnt want anything.
must not B: She _____ be thirsty. Practice: A: That dog wont eat. must not feel well. B: He _____
Practice: A: Brian has watery eyes and has been coughing and sneezing. must have a cold. B: Poor guy. He _____ Practice: A: Ericas really smart. She always gets above 95% on her math tests.
must B: Im sure shes pretty bright, but she _____ also study a lot. Practice: A: Listen. Someone is jumping on the floor above us. must be Sam. Sometimes he exercises in his apartment. B: It _____
Practice twice! Ex. 37, p. 197 Ex. 38, p. 198 Make a logical conclusion for each situation. Use must. Write your answers and then share them with a partner.
Work in groups of three Read the following situations. Make several logical conclusions. Example: I am at Cyrils apartment door. Ive knocked on the door and have rung the doorbell several times. Nobody has answered the door.
Conclusion 1: He must not be home! Conclusion 2: He must be asleep. Conclusion 3: He must be at work! Conclusion 4:
He must be listening to music with headphones on. Jennifer reads all the time. She sits in a quiet corner and reads even when people come to visit her. Lara has a full academic schedule, she plays on the volleyball team, has
the lead in the school play, is a volunteer at the hospital, takes piano lessons, and has a part time job at an ice cream store. Simon gets on the Internet every day as soon as he gets home from work. He stays at his computer until he goes to bed. Check homework (exercise 42, p.199)
1. cant 2. will 3. wouldnt 4. do 5. should 6. cant 7. wouldnt 8. doesnt
9. shouldnt 10. wont 11. could 12. dont Giving suggestions (for you and another person to do) Its hot today
go to the beach Lets ____ go to the beach? Why dont we____ Make suggestions. Where should we go for dinner tonight? Lets _______.
Why dont we__________? Make suggestions Use lets and why dont we 1. Who should we ask to join us for dinner? 2. What time should we meet at the restaurant? 3. Where should we go afterwards?
Make a friendly suggestion Im tired. Why dont you take a nap? Work in groups of three Read the situations on page 203, ex. 49. Make friendly suggestions with why dont you..?
Discuss with your partner Do you prefer reading books or watching TV? Would you rather read a magazine or a book? Which do you like better: watching soap operas or watching science fiction programs? Which would you rather watch on TV: a game show or a sports match?
Prefer Prefer + noun + to + noun On a piece of paper, write a personal sentence with this structure. Prefer Prefer + ing verb + to +ing verb On your paper, write a personal sentence with this structure.
Would rather Contraction = d rather Id rather watch TV than read. Would rather + base verb Would rather + base verb + than + base verb
Examples: Men would rather watch adventure programs Women would rather see a game show than sports On your paper, write personal sentences with these structures. Like better than
Like + noun + better than +noun Like + ing verb + better than +ing verb Examples: Men like sports better than dramas They like reading nonfiction better than reading novels. On your paper, write personal sentences with these structures.
Exercise 52, page 204-205 Check 4. to 5. than 6. than 7. to 8. than
9. than 10. than 11. to 12. than Communicative: If you had to choose.. Page 205 Ex. 53 Read the situations with your partner.
Discuss the questions. Use these phrases in your conversation: would rather than prefer to . like better than Homework Exercise 55
Check: 1. c 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. b
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
c b a c b b a
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b b
a c a Check homework (exercise 42, p.199) 1. cant 2. will
3. wouldnt 4. do 5. should 6. cant 7. wouldnt 8. doesnt 9. shouldnt 10. wont
Critical research of internationalization policy is lacking Internationalization has become a synonym of "doing good" and people are less into questioning its effectiveness and essential nature an instrument to improve the quality of education or research. (Brandenburg & de Wit,...
The 8 Stages of Genocide. The Eight Stages of Genocide were first outlined by Dr. Greg Stanton, Department of State: 1996. The first six stages are Early Warnings: Classification. Symbolization. Dehumanization. Organization. Polarization. Preparation . Extermination. Denial
"Social justice may be broadly understood as the fair and compassionate distribution of the fruits of economic growth" " Social justice is not possible without . strong and coherent redistributive policies. conceived and implemented by public agencies." "Present-day believers in...
Njegove minijature i rukopisi se čuvaju u Beču, Londonu i New Yorku (Officium Virginis) a u našoj zemlji se nalazi samo"Gloria in excelsis deo".Ova raskošna djela i bogati Klovićev opus, donose mu ugled kod suvremenika i česti naziv "Michelangelo minijature"...
Fermi, Bethe & others. Still being researched. Gravitational Force: Newton ("classical" mechanics) Einstein (general relativity) "Electro-Weak" Force Since ~ the late 1960's, in some sense have reduced the 4 fundamental forces to 3! The Electromagnetic Force & the Weak Nuclear...
Levers. Lever. A simple machine made up of a bar that pivots or rotates about a fixed point. The fixed point is called the fulcrum. In levers, the distance from the input force to the fulcrum is known as the...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!