11-1 Session 19 Organizational Structure 11-2 Learning Objectives 1. Identify five traditional organizational structures and the pros and cons of each 2. Explain the product-team structure and how it is a prototype of more open/agile structures. 3. What is meant by agile, virtual organizations 4. Explain what is meant by boundaryless organizations and why they are important Traditional Organizational Structures
11-3 Organizational structure refers to the formalized arrangement of interaction between and responsibility for the tasks, people, and resources in an organization It is most often seen as a chart, often a pyramidal chart, with positions or titles and roles in cascading fashion 11-4 Division of Labor Remains the fundamental organizational structuring philosophy
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11-7 Simple Organizational Structure A simple organizational structure is one where there is an owner and a few employees and where the arrangement of tasks, responsibilities, and communication is highly informal and accomplished through direct supervision This type of structure can be very demanding on the owner-manager Most businesses in this country and around the world are of this type 11-8
Functional Organizational Structure A functional organizational structure is one on which the tasks, people, and technologies necessary to do the work of the business are divided into separate functional groups (such as marketing, operations, and finance) with increasingly formal procedures for coordinating and integrating their activities to provide the businesss products and services 11-9 Functional Organization Structures 11-10 Divisional Structure
A divisional organizational structure is one in which a set of relatively autonomous units, or divisions, are governed by a central corporate office but where each operating division has its own functional specialists who provide products or services different from those of other divisions This expedites decision making in response to varied competitive environments The division usually is given profit responsibility Multidivisional (M-Form) Structures Cooperative M-Form 11-11
Competitive M-Form related divisions/SBUs Unrelated divisions/SBUs (concentrically diverse) (conglomerately diverse) therefore sharing of therefore no forced information & best sharing of information practices is mandated by & techniques; divisions the corporate level operate autonomously holding company model more complex structure Simpler structure 11-12 Competitive M-Form
Competitive in what way? 11-13 Divisional Organization Structure 11-14 Strategic Business Unit The strategic business unit (SBU) is an adaptation of the divisional structure whereby various divisions or parts of divisions are grouped together based on some common strategic elements, usually linked to distinct product/market differences
The advantages and disadvantages of the SBU form are very similar to those identified for divisional structures 11-15 Holding Company Structure A final form of the divisional organization is the holding company structure, where the corporate entity is a broad collection of often unrelated businesses (more conglomerately diverse) and divisions such that it (the corporate entity) acts as financial overseer holding the ownership interest in the various parts of the company but has little direct managerial involvement 11-16
Matrix Organizational Structure The matrix organizational structure is one in which functional and staff personnel are assigned to both a basic functional area and to a project or product manager The matrix form is intended to make the best use of talented people within a firm by combining the advantages of functional specialization and product-project specialization 11-17 Matrix Organizational Structure
11-18 Product-Team Structure The product-team structure seeks to simplify and amplify the focus of resources on a narrow but strategically important product, project, market, customer, or innovation The product-team structure assigns functional managers and specialists to a new product, project, or process team that is empowered to make major decisions about their product 11-19 The Product-Team Structure
Trends Affecting Organizations in the 21st Century Globalization The Internet Speed 11-20 Efforts to Improve Traditional Structures 11-21 Redefine the role of corporate headquarters from control to support and coordination
Balance the demands for control/differentiation with the need for coordination/integration Restructure to emphasize and support strategically critical activities Reengineer strategic business processes Downsize and self-manage Creating Agile, Virtual Organizations 11-22 Virtual organization: a temporary network of independent companiessuppliers, customers, subcontractors, even competitorslinked primarily by information technology to share skills, access to markets, and costs
An agile organization is one that identifies a set of business capabilities (core competencies from VC analysis) central to high-profitability operations and then builds a virtual organization around those capabilities OutsourcingCreating a Modular Organization 11-23 Outsourcing is simply obtaining work previously done by employees inside the companies from sources outside the company A modular organization provides products or services using different, self-contained specialists
or companies brought togetheroutsourcedto contribute their primary or support activity to result in a successful outcome Business process outsourcing (BPO) is the most rapidly growing segment of the outsourcing services industry worldwide (esp. HR and MIS) 11-24 Types of Boundaries Horizontal boundariesbetween different departments or functions in a firm. (silos) Vertical boundariesbetween operations and management, and levels of management, between corporate and division
Geographic boundariesbetween different physical locations; between different countries or regions of the world and between cultures External interface boundariesbetween a company and its customers, suppliers, partners, regulators, and competitors 11-25 Becoming Boundaryless Jack Welch coined the term boundaryless to illustrate his vision for GE Achieved via outsourcing, strategic alliances, product-team structures, & reengineering
Technology, particularly driven by the Internet, has and will be a major driver Ambidextrous Learning Organization 11-26 The rise of the virtual organizational structure highlights the central role knowledge plays in implementation Shift from exploitation to exploration (Ragan) indicates the growing importance of cooperative organizational structures that enable a learning
organization to allow global companies the chance to build competitive advantage An ambidextrous organization emphasizes coordination over control as well as flexibility
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