University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and

University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and

University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and Memory Professor Graham Davies Lecture 4 Copies of Overheads Working Memory and Levels of Processing Varieties of Amnesia anterograde amnesia inability to learn information subsequent to accident (some stroke victims)

retrograde amnesia inability to remember prior to accident (concussion) classic case of anterograde amnesia: HM (Milner, 1966) - Good memory for events prior to operation But little or no recall for subsequent events Support for the modal model from anterograde amnesia

Normal memory span but grossly defective superspan (Drachman & Arbit, 1966) Normal recency effect but greatly reduced primacy effect (Baddeley & Warrington, 1970) Refutation of the modal model from later studies Anterograde amnesia patients can learn motorskills (jigsaw puzzles) and even verbal material with prompting (Warrington & Weizkrantz, 1970)

Some aphasic patients show grossly defective STM but relative intact LTM (Shallice & Warrington, 1970) double disassociation More generalised criticism of the Modal Model: Levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) Pre-occupation with structure at the expense of process Memory as a bi-product of processing rather than a deliberate act Pre-occupation with rehearsal at the expense of other control processes How a stimulus is processed determines recall as much as the

stimulus itself (Craik & Tulving, 1975) Short-term memory not a passive state but the centre of the cognitive system The Working Memory Approach (Baddeley, 1986) If all information goes through short-term memory, then filling STM with irrelevant material should seriously impair cognitive function

Simultaneous rehearsal of 3 digits does not impair free recall, 6 digits does (the dual task approach) Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) Modular approach to memory - The central executive - The phonological loop - The visual sketchpad Testing working memory with dual tasks Knock out phonological loop (one,two, three..) and the normal superiority of single (sum) to multisyllable (university) words is lost (Baddeley et al.

1975) Knock out sketchpad (simultaneous tracking_ and the normal effectiveness of imagery based mnemonics is lost (Baddeley & Lieberman, 1980) Working memory approach used profitably in understanding retrograde amnesia, dyslexia, vocabulary development and mental arithmetic a simple but versatile idea.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Adverbs and adverbial phrases

    Adverbs and adverbial phrases

    Adverbs and adverbial phrases How many adverbs can you spot? He stretched sleepily and then suddenly realised it was Monday. Immediately he jumped out of bed and quickly threw his clothes on.
  • The Feasts of Israel - Bible Study Resource Center

    The Feasts of Israel - Bible Study Resource Center

    Ezekiel 41:22-23 22 The altar of wood was three cubits high, and the length thereof two cubits; and the corners thereof, and the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were of wood: and he said unto me, This is the...


    WHO ARE WE? [email protected] We are the Students' Union Sports team, responsible for helping you lead our 44 Sports Clubs. We deal with most of the boring admin stuff, so you don't have too.
  • Beneatha Younger

    Beneatha Younger

    Beneatha Younger. Period 1. AradaCherdsuriya. Caroline Luu. Eunice Hong. Jessica Fang. Egg tarts in the sun. ... You got any more to say 'bout how people ought to sit down and talk to each other..?"-Walter. Beneatha sounds more trustworthy than...
  • Learning Objectives - PC\|MAC

    Learning Objectives - PC\|MAC

    Chapter 40 Microbiology Lisa Osborne/Rhonda Keen Medical/Surgical Nursing II
  • Chapter 5

    Chapter 5

    Example: hockey puck sitting on the ice. What forces are acting on it when it is at rest? Support or Normal Force. Weight. When the normal force = the weight of the puck, the puck is in . equilibrium. The...
  • Chapter 1

    Chapter 1

    Title: Chapter 1 Author: David Garrett Last modified by: Asaf Created Date: 8/1/2003 12:29:19 PM Document presentation format: Ekran Gösterisi (4:3)
  • Santa's Candy Cane Calamity

    Santa's Candy Cane Calamity

    To make enough Candy Cane crush for all the elves Mrs Claus has to work fast (there are a lot of elves at the North Pole) The delay in production is dissolving the candy canes in the cold melt water....