University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and

University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and

University of Leicester Year 1 Psychology Learning and Memory Professor Graham Davies Lecture 4 Copies of Overheads Working Memory and Levels of Processing Varieties of Amnesia anterograde amnesia inability to learn information subsequent to accident (some stroke victims)

retrograde amnesia inability to remember prior to accident (concussion) classic case of anterograde amnesia: HM (Milner, 1966) - Good memory for events prior to operation But little or no recall for subsequent events Support for the modal model from anterograde amnesia

Normal memory span but grossly defective superspan (Drachman & Arbit, 1966) Normal recency effect but greatly reduced primacy effect (Baddeley & Warrington, 1970) Refutation of the modal model from later studies Anterograde amnesia patients can learn motorskills (jigsaw puzzles) and even verbal material with prompting (Warrington & Weizkrantz, 1970)

Some aphasic patients show grossly defective STM but relative intact LTM (Shallice & Warrington, 1970) double disassociation More generalised criticism of the Modal Model: Levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) Pre-occupation with structure at the expense of process Memory as a bi-product of processing rather than a deliberate act Pre-occupation with rehearsal at the expense of other control processes How a stimulus is processed determines recall as much as the

stimulus itself (Craik & Tulving, 1975) Short-term memory not a passive state but the centre of the cognitive system The Working Memory Approach (Baddeley, 1986) If all information goes through short-term memory, then filling STM with irrelevant material should seriously impair cognitive function

Simultaneous rehearsal of 3 digits does not impair free recall, 6 digits does (the dual task approach) Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) Modular approach to memory - The central executive - The phonological loop - The visual sketchpad Testing working memory with dual tasks Knock out phonological loop (one,two, three..) and the normal superiority of single (sum) to multisyllable (university) words is lost (Baddeley et al.

1975) Knock out sketchpad (simultaneous tracking_ and the normal effectiveness of imagery based mnemonics is lost (Baddeley & Lieberman, 1980) Working memory approach used profitably in understanding retrograde amnesia, dyslexia, vocabulary development and mental arithmetic a simple but versatile idea.

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