Species Interactions Important in determining population dynamics community
Species Interactions Important in determining population dynamics community composition landscape spatial pattern ecosystem function T. Kittel, W. Bowman Univ of Colorado General Categories Assigned by effect on the two individual organisms interacting:
+, + = mutualism N2 fixation, mycorrhizae +, 0 = commensalism Nurse plants , 0/+ = amensalism Allelopathy , + = parasitism herbivory / predation , = competition Intra & interspecific Think about these interactions in the context of species
geography! Can be more complicated than direct interactions of 2 individuals mediated through a 3rd individual or species A. Mutualism (+, +) Plant-Microbe Mycorrhizae Nfixation Lichen Plant-Animal Pollination
Rhinoceros Hornbill eating Strangler Fig fruits, Borneo Mucuna holtonii, Central America Insects Birds Hummingbirds Bats Fruit dispersal Defense Ants
Azteca Ants on Cecropai, Panama Rufous Hummingbird The Forgotten Pollinators Lesser Long-nosed Bat Longdistance migratory pollinators Threatened habitat loss Keystone species Nectar corridors Sequence of flowering
plants Monarch Butterfly White-winged Dove Arizona-Sonoran Desert Museum www.desertmuseum.org/pollination/ B. Commensalism (+,0) lant-Plant 1) Vines 2) Epiphytes
Bromeliads Orchids Cacti Ferns Lichen Moss Algae moss v. lichen Atlantic Forest, Brazil Staghorn fern Exceptions Commensalism
goes to Mutualism Lichen with cyanobacteria: N leaching, benefit to tree goes bad Detrimental overburden Competition Strangulation Overtopping Strangler fig
Kudzu the vine that ate the south Introduced 1876 from Asia Planted for soil conservation 1930s Pueraria montana var. lobata Oriental Bittersweet Vine, introduced from e. Asia Invasion in eastern US Celastrus orbiculata A. Commensalism continued
2) Nurse plants Saguaros under Palo Verde Desert annuals under shrubs Pion pine under Sagebrush Plant-animal commensalism Habitat nesting roosting hunting for other animals shelter from other animals
Red-footed Booby in Mangrove Galpagos Is. Oropendola nests, Roraima Brazil Iran Jaya's People of the Trees Titi monkey, So Paulo Brazil C. Amensalism ( , 0/+) Allelochemical Interactions PlantPlant
Allelopathy Larrea tridentata - Creosote Difficult to show in field PlantAnimal Herbivory defenses Big sagebrush with native bunchgrasses growing under canopy
PlantDecomposer Litter composition soil pH soil biota: Conifer low pH fungi favored, Temperate Deciduous neutral bacteria Plant leakage of compounds detrimental to soil biota D. Parasitism (,+) Dodder (Cuscuta) stem parasite no chlorophyll = holoparasite Coral root orchid - Corallarhiza maculata root parasite on pines
Arceuthobium americanum Carpellate plant on Pinus contorta istletoe stem parasite differing degrees of chlorophyll with chlorophyll = hemiparasite w/o holoparasite Dwarf mistletoe holoparasite Arceuthobium cyanocarpum Staminate plant (left) and carpellate
plant (right) on Pinus ponderosa leaf (Hairy) mistletoe - hemiparasite Phoradendron tomentosum on hackberry (Celtis laevigata), preferred host More hemiparasites: Indian paintbrush Castilleja spp. Root parasite erence of species interactions on the landscape
If species interactions are important to plant species Should be reflected in the spatial patterns of individuals (inter and intraspecific) if mutualisms among plant species occur, should be a positive association they should occur closer together (clumped) than predicted by chance (random) andscape spatial patterning (cont) if amensalism occurs, should be pushed away from each other giving an even distribution Larrea tridentata - Creosote
andscape spatial patterning (cont) Under competition competitive exclusion leads to range separation niche partitioning Non-overlapping geographic ranges of five species of large kangaroo rats Withincanopy distribution Amazonian tree
The long roots dangling from the crown probably belong to Philodendrons On the middle and upper branches cluster groups of orchids, bromeliads, and ferns including staghorn fern Low on the trunk are Arums &
Philodendrons with heart-shaped Keystone species Presence of a species determines community structure disproportionately to population size Summary Species Interactions Plants and animals engaged in interactions with wide range of other taxa
Positive, detrimental, or neutral effects of one species on another Reflected in spatial patterns random vs. even vs. uniform Reflected in community structure Keystone species
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