Ecology - the scientific study of the relationships

 Ecology - the scientific study of the relationships

Ecology - the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environment -Studies the interconnections between the individual parts of a system (the plants, the nutrients, ) and how they work to form the whole system

Matter - everything that takes up space and has mass Energy - the capacity to do work kinetic energy - the energy of motion potential energy - stored energy ready for use 1st Law of Thermodynamics energy is conserved (E = Q - W)

2nd Law of Thermodynamics no transformation of energy is completely efficient Elements Substances that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by ordinary physical or chemical means.

(i.e. excluding nuclear reactions / radioactive decay) Most abundant elements in the Continental Crust Oxygen 45% by wt. Sodium 2.32% Silicon 27% Potassium 1.7% Aluminum 8% Titanium 0.86 % Iron 5.8% Hydrogen 0.14%

Calcium 5% Manganese 0.1 % Magnesium 2.8% Phosphorous 0.1 % All other elements 0.77 % ----> 100% Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Elements and compounds 2-2 Atoms Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Periodic table of the elements Figure 2.2 2-1 Isotopes Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Molecules and compounds Figure 2.4 2-4 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Atom (carbon-12) Figure 2.3 2-3 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Organic molecules

Figure 2.6 2-6 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The electromagnetic spectrum Figure 2.9

2-8 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Photosynthesis Figure 2.10

2-9 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Energy flows in food web Figure 2.13 2-11

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Trophic levels Figure 2.14 2-12

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Energy pyramid Figure 2.15 2-13 Source: Data from Howard T. Odum, Trophic Structure and Productivity of Silver Springs, Florida in Ecological Monographs,

27:55-112, 1957, Ecological Society of America. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Energy pyramid/biomass period Figure 2.16 2-14

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Trophic pyramid Figure 2.17 2-15

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Carbon cycle Figure 2.19 2-17 Photosynthesis

6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nitrogen cycle

Figure 2.20 2-18 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Phosphorus cycle Figure 2.22

2-19 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sulfur cycle Figure 2.23

2-20 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Dimethylsulfide Figure 2.24 2-21

Water

Strongly Polar Liquid over a wide range of temperatures High Specific Heat High Heat of Vaporization Becomes less dense as it solidifies Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Energy exchange in ecosystem Figure 2.11 2-10

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