System Strength Assessment of the Panhandle System Electranix

System Strength Assessment of the Panhandle System Electranix

System Strength Assessment of the Panhandle System Electranix Corporation February 4, 2016 Presentation Overview Introduction to Electranix Background on Study Study Objectives Modeling Background Key Results Recommendations Questions 2 Introduction and Overview ELECTRANIX Corporation is an independent specialist engineering company providing services in transmission and distribution studies and simulation, HVDC transmission, FACTS, modeling and simulation tools, training, and renewable energy generation. 3 Who Are We?

Leadership and Consulting Team Dennis Woodford President, Owner Garth Irwin VP, Owner Andrew Isaacs VP, Study Engineer Studies Team Anuradha Dissanayaka M.Sc. Study Engineer Francisco Gomez Ph.D. Study Engineer Chaminda Amarasinghe Ph.D. Modeling Specialist Engineer Xiuyu Chen Ph.D. HVDC Specialist Engineer Amit Jindal Ph.D. Study Engineer Jake Wiebe Study Engineer Jeremy Sneath M.Sc. Study Engineer Software Team Joel Dyck Computer Scientist Nathan Kroeker Computer Scientist 4 What do we do?

PSCAD Simulation and Studies Custom Modeling in PSCAD, PSSE, PSLF Specialty PSCAD device models with real code interfaces Interconnection studies (Powerflow, Stability, etc) Power Electronic Device Interaction Studies Path/Transfer Capability and Operating Studies Sub-synchronous Interaction Analysis Analysis and Preparation of HVDC technical specifications SVC, STATCOM, Series capacitor technical specifications TOV, TRV, Lightning/Steep front, Insulation coordination Ferro-resonance Analysis E-TRAN Translation tool for large PSCAD models E-TRAN Plus Hybrid and Parallel simulation tools Custom Training Technical/Consulting support 5 Proudly independent!

Who are our Customers? Manufacturers Transmission Companies and ISOs Research Bodies Generation Companies Consultants 6 What makes us unique? Best knowledge of PSCAD modeling in the world Trusted by Manufacturers E-TRAN Plus for PSCAD and PSSE is recently for sale, but hasnt been widely adopted by consultants yet. We are leading the world in large system EMT modeling. Culture of innovation, teamwork, and knowledge transfer

NDA agreements in place with many or most, longstanding working relationships, in many cases we developed their PSCAD models, we provide advanced PSCAD training for largest manufacturers Unique software and modelling capabilities (Dennis headed HVDC Research Center, Garth headed PSCAD devel. For 15 years) We are small and agile, excited about solving unique problems, and we want to help others expand and develop their capabilities State-of-the-Art Skills and Information We are heavily invested in research and are active participants in Cigre and IEEE 7 Panhandle Study Background A Collaborative Effort! ERCOT System Planning completed the Panhandle Study Report in April 2014, identifying several key recommendations for the Panhandle wind development, including:

WSCR metric for evaluating system strength Preliminary transmission system build-out to support wind at varying future levels Due to the unprecedented nature of the interconnections, and the limitations of existing analysis tools, ERCOT issued an RFP for study in January 2015 to help confirm their study results and provide confidence and information moving forward. Starting in Spring of 2015, Electranix began work on a groundbreaking new type of study, working in close collaboration with ERCOT 8 What is a strong system? 9 What is a weak system? 10 What is a weak system in a place like Texas? 11 Is the network weak or strong?

Imagine putting a fault on the system, and measuring the current in the fault strong systems will have lots of current! We calculate an MVA number based on this current, called Short Circuit MVA, or SCMVA STRONG SYSTEM = Big SCMVA Weak System = Little SCMVA 12 Is the network relatively weak or strong? The size of the wind farm relative to the strength of the system is a useful metric We calculate a relative metric called Short Circuit Ratio, or SCR. This is not a perfect metric only a guide. (Note: WSCR is a similar metric which attempts to account for many distributed wind sources,

for areas like the Panhandle) Relatively Weak = Low SCR or WSCR Relatively Strong = High SCR or WSCR 13 Why is low SCR a problem? If the wind plant is relatively large with respect to the system strength (low SCR): Wind plant has a large capacity to affect, or move the system Fast power electronics require a steady voltage and frequency to operate in a stable way Conventional power systems study tools may not be sufficiently detailed to represent controls in weak systems 14 Panhandle Study Objectives

Perform an detailed EMTP type analysis for the Panhandle region to validate the WSCR-based planning and operating thresholds proposed by ERCOT, and propose adjustments if necessary. Provide recommendations and information relating to simulation tool adequacy. Using very detailed models, validate the effectiveness of ERCOT proposed transmission buildout for near-term wind expansion up to 4300 MW. Provide recommendations on area-wide voltage regulation strategies. Transfer study tools and knowledge to ERCOT engineers. 15 Modeling Background: Development of the worlds largest working PSCAD model. Pure PSS/E Model (Used for Prior ERCOT analysis) Advantages: Widely understood and embedded in industry understanding Runs quickly, allowing many cases to be automated and run Represents wide-area dynamics Disadvantages: Unable to represent detailed control and protection behaviour in weak systems Approximates control functionality, giving rise to some uncertainty in model behaviour

Unable to represent unbalanced conditions, or any phenomena other than 60 Hz phenomena. 16 Modeling Background: Development of the worlds largest working PSCAD model. Pure PSCAD Model Advantages: Very accurate within study region Correctly represents control and protection of power electronics (assuming accurate models are used) Correctly represents unbalanced conditions (eg. SLG faults) Accounts for phenomena at sub-synchronous and super-synchronous frequencies Disadvantages: Computationally intensive, requiring care in selecting study area and study cases. This may be mitigated to some extent using parallelization software (E-Tran Plus for PSCAD). Requires advanced training for correct end-use Requires very detailed models which require specialists to produce, and may contain proprietary data Requires approximations at the edge of study area (difficult to represent very large systems)

17 Modeling Background: Development of the worlds largest working PSCAD model. 18 Modeling Background: Development of the worlds largest working PSCAD model. Hybrid PSCAD/PSSE Model Advantages: Most accurate model, removing approximations at the edge of the study area, and allowing very large system models to be used and wide-area dynamics to be represented. All the advantages of the pure PSCAD model. Disadvantages: Requires special software and additional training for engineers. Requires detailed models. Computationally intensive. 19 Modeling Background: Development of the worlds largest working PSCAD model. 20 ERCOT Panhandle Region Overview: Development of the worlds largest working PSCAD model. 20 wind generation projects with total of 4300 MW capacity will

be interconnected to the 345 kV transmission grid in Panhandle. Models in the PSCAD include: 13 wind projects with developer provided PSCAD models 7 projects that no PSCAD provided were modeled based on similar technology and size of a wind project with proper adjustment. DVAR models if provided Transmission grid in Panhandle SVCs in Panhandle Synchronous Condensers in Panhandle 21 Modeling Background: ERCOT Hybrid PSCAD/PSSE model. 23 Key Results: Dynamic Performance Upgrades Panhandle Upgrades (Second (Second Wind Circuit + Circuit + Dispatch

150 MVA x2 150 MVA x2 (MW) Sync.Cond.) STATCOM) Upgrades (Second Circuit + 150 MVA x2 SVC) Plant Voltage Controls WSCR Results Fail Wind Trips Good Wind Trips Wind Trips Marginal Case Panhandle Wind Capacity

(MW) 1 4300 3700 No No No No* 1.2 2 4300 3700 No No No Yes** 1.2

3 4300 3700 Yes No No No 1.5 4 4300 3700 No Yes No No 1.3

5 4300 3700 No No Yes No 1.3 6 4300 3900 Yes No No No 1.4 Total

Wind Tripped (MW) 3150 250 0 375 150 0 (*) default Plant Control Voltage setting based on the submitted models (**) Plant voltage controller tuned to respond with reactive power in approximately 3 seconds WSCR = 1.5 prior to fault performs well! 24 Contingencies Dynamic Analysis (PSS/E) ~200 contingencies were tested in and close to Panhandle region 3-phase fault, single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault Normal clearing and delayed clearing (breaker failure) PSCAD 18 contingencies identified in the dynamic analysis were tested in and close to Panhandle region 3-phase fault, single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault Normal clearing and delayed clearing (breaker failure)

25 Key Results: Dynamic Performance Upgrades Panhandle Upgrades (Second (Second Wind Circuit + Circuit + Dispatch 150 MVA x2 150 MVA x2 (MW) Sync.Cond.) STATCOM) 3700 No No Upgrades (Second Circuit + 150 MVA x2 SVC) No Case

Panhandle Wind Capacity (MW) 1 4300 2 4300 3700 No No No Yes** 1.2 3 4300 3700 Yes

No No No 1.5 4 4300 3700 No Yes No No 1.3 5 4300 3700 No No

Yes No 1.3 6 4300 3900 Yes No No No 1.4 Plant Voltage Controls WSCR Results No*

1.2 Fail Wind Trips Good Wind Trips Wind Trips Marginal Total Wind Tripped (MW) 3150 250 0 375 150 0 26 Upgrades Upgrades Panhandle (Second (Second Wind Circuit + Circuit +

Dispatch 150 MVA x2 150 MVA x2 (MW) Sync.Cond.) STATCOM) 3700 No No Upgrades (Second Circuit + 150 MVA x2 SVC) No Case Panhandle Wind Capacity (MW) 1 4300 2 4300 3700 No

No No Yes** 1.2 3 4300 3700 Yes No No No 1.5 4 4300 3700 No Yes

No No 1.3 5 4300 3700 No No Yes No 1.3 6 4300 3900 Yes No

No No 1.4 Plant Voltage Controls WSCR Results No* 1.2 Fail Wind Trips Good Wind Trips Wind Trips Marginal Total Wind Tripped (MW) 3150

250 0 375 150 0 27 Upgrades Panhandle Upgrades (Second (Second Wind Circuit + Circuit + Dispatch 150 MVA x2 150 MVA x2 (MW) Sync.Cond.) STATCOM) 3700 No No Upgrades (Second Circuit + 150 MVA x2 SVC) No Case Panhandle Wind

Capacity (MW) 1 4300 2 4300 3700 No No No Yes** 1.2 3 4300 3700 Yes No

No No 1.5 4 4300 3700 No Yes No No 1.3 5 4300 3700 No No Yes

No 1.3 6 4300 3900 Yes No No No 1.4 Plant Voltage Controls WSCR Results No* 1.2

Fail Wind Trips Good Wind Trips Wind Trips Marginal Total Wind Tripped (MW) 3150 250 0 375 150 0 28 Key Results: Parametric SCR Reduction Concept: Leave the Panhandle alone, and weaken the ERCOT source linearly NEQ2 DERMOTT_ N11305

NEQ1 RILEY7A N6101 E T-Line E_11305_6101_ETREQ G_11305_1 NEQ11 CLEARCRO N60515 E T-Line E_6101_60515_ETREQ G_60515_1 G_6101_1 E T-Line E_11305_60515_ETREQ 29 Key Results: Parametric SCR Reduction WSCR 1.5 1.4

1.35 1.25 1.1 1 0.9 Small Signal Stable Large Signal Stable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Replace Sync. Condenser with STATCOM 1.3* Not done No Replace Sync. Condenser with SVC 1.3* Not done No * For these cases, the system is the same as the upgraded system, but the effective WSCR is reduced due to the absence of Synchronous Condensers

WSCR=1.4 after fault performs well! 30 Large Signal Ramp Test: Small Signal Ramp Test: 31 Key Results: Simulation Tool Comparison for faults inside Panhandle General recovery dynamics track quite well Active power recovery is perfectly smooth in PSSE Oscillatory reactive power response in PSCAD as inverters struggle to control Voltage Fast reactive power response quickly drives voltage high in PSSE

Instantaneous rms voltage measurements in PSSE 32 Key Results: Simulation Tool Comparison for faults outside Panhandle 33 Recommendations1 WSCR WSCR = 1.5 is a suitable planning level for the Panhandle region for the proposed topology Dynamic performance tests and SCR ramp tests both indicate that WSCR of 1.5 provides robust performance. Includes some margin for model error and assumptions, and planning uncertainty Additional restrictions may be imposed on wind capacity, not only wind dispatch. Care should be taken when applying this level in other regions

further analysis may be required. Specific issues identified at lower WSCR values could potentially be mitigated through detailed design review and study iterations with manufacturer involvement. Note 1: Please refer to full report for details on each recommendation! 34 Recommendations1 Simulation Tool Adequacy For the Panhandle as studied, with WSCR > 1.5, PSSE studies are good, but may be occasionally validated using PSCAD. For WSCR < 1.5, PSCAD analysis should be done. Studies well outside the Panhandle region do not need to model the Panhandle in PSCAD, unless specific dynamic behaviour is evident. Hybrid simulation is more accurate, and may tend to provide more stable results. If PSS/E is used for planning studies, key limitations should be considered (protection may not be accurate, unbalance conditions are not correctly represented, and response may differ in post-fault period) Further details on these limitations are included in the report. Note 1: Please refer to full report for details on each recommendation! 35 Recommendations1 Panhandle Voltage Regulation Fast wind power plant voltage control can provide benefit to improve the response under weak grid conditions. Some dynamic VARs should be provided by dedicated system devices (such as Sync. Cons, STATCOMs, or SVCs). Care should be taken in studying VAR adequacy in PSSE studies (eg. consider 0-30 second timeframe in Powerflow) Fast (eg. support within 3 seconds) response times for plant controllers could be very beneficial, but would require some additional analysis and timely detailed (PSCAD) model submissions for all relevant resources. Note 1: Please refer to full report for details on each recommendation! 36 Recommendations1 Further Study Our appendix is more than 2500 pages of simulation traces, but there is a lot more to look at!

Fast plant controllers should be examined in more detail with consultation from stakeholders If significant deviations from ERCOT plan are considered, sensitivity analysis should be undertaken Applicability of WSCR recommendations to other regions and network topologies remains to be seen Periodic PSCAD studies are recommended to validate conventional transient stability models, and improve understanding of system behaviour. ERCOT PSSE models and studies should be reviewed with an eye to short term dynamic VAR adequacy Further examination into specific cases which may weaken individual areas without reducing WSCR substantially should be done. Specific issues observed may be mitigated with further detailed study Note 1: Please refer to full report for details on each recommendation! 37 Further Observations

The proposed Panhandle system upgrades for the near term are adequate to solve the voltage stability and weak system issues identified for the wind dispatch scenarios considered. The direct replacement of the proposed synchronous condensers with either STATCOMs or SVCs indicate wind plant control challenges under weakened system conditions. This analysis was done with wind generation capacity at the predefined planning level of 4300 MW. If significant additional capacity is required to be connected (even assuming a constant reduced power dispatch) without corresponding network upgrades, more analysis should be done, as increased inverter capacity may degrade performance if not accompanied by a corresponding increase in system strength. 38 Acknowledgements Electranix gratefully acknowledges Shun-Hsien (Fred) Huang and John Schmall from Transmission Planning at ERCOT for their valuable assistance and participation in these studies. Thanks! 39 Questions? 40

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