LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN 12 Food Production and the Environment Cengage CengageLearning Learning2015 2015 Core Case Study: Growing Power An

Urban Food Oasis Food desert (opposite of food dessert) Urban area where people have little or no easy access to nutritious food Growing Power, Inc. in Milwaukee, WI Uses solar power Produces 150 varieties of vegetables Runs education program MacArthur Genius Grant winner Functional Bad Ass Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015

Fig. 12-1, p. 278 12-1 What Is Food Security and Why Is It Difficult to Attain? Paradox 1 Many people in less-developed countries have health problems from not getting enough food; many people in more-developed countries suffer health problems from eating too much Cengage Learning 2015

12-1 What Is Food Security and Why Is It Difficult to Attain? The greatest obstacles to providing enough food for everyone are: Poverty war bad weather climate change harmful environmental effects of industrialized food production Cengage Learning 2015 Poverty Is the Root Cause of Food

Insecurity Food security All or most people in a country have daily access to enough nutritious food to lead active and healthy lives Food insecurity Chronic hunger and poor nutrition Caused by political upheaval, war, corruption, and bad weather Cengage Learning 2015 Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and Malnutrition

Macronutrients 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Fats Micronutrients 1. Vitamins 2. Minerals Cengage Learning 2015 Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and Malnutrition (contd.) Chronic Undernutrition (lack of food)

Not enough food to meet basic energy needs Chronic Malnutrition (type of food) Not enough protein or other key nutrients Famine Severe shortage of food Result in mass starvation, many deaths, economic chaos, and social disruption Cengage Learning 2015 Many People Do No Get Enough Vitamins and Minerals

Most often vitamin and mineral deficiencies in people in lessdeveloped countries Iron Anemia Iodine (read salt label next time youre in the grocery store) Essential for thyroid function Cengage Learning 2015 Many People Have Health Problems from Eating Too Much Overnutrition (Oxymoron?) Excess body fat from too many calories and not enough exercise

Similar health problems to those who are underfed Lower life expectancy Greater susceptibility to disease and illness Lower productivity and life quality Cengage Learning 2015 12-2 How Is Food Produced? We have used high-input industrialized agriculture and lower-input traditional agriculture to greatly increase food supplies

What is the result? Cengage Learning 2015 Food Production Has Increased Dramatically Three systems produce most of our food: 1. Croplands 77% on 11% worlds land area 2. Rangelands, pastures, and feedlots 16% on 29% of worlds land area 3. Aquaculture 7% Three main grain crops wheat, rice, and corn Irrigation supply of water to crops

Cengage Learning 2015 Industrialized Crop Production Relies on High-Input Monocultures Industrialized agriculture Heavy equipment Large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuels, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides Single crop Goal is to steadily increase crop yield Plantation agriculture cash crops Primarily in less-developed countries

Increased use of greenhouses to raise crops Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-4, p. 281 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-5, p. 282 Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on Low-Input Polycultures Traditional subsistence agriculture Human labor and draft animals for family food

Traditional intensive agriculture Higher yields through use of manure and water Polyculture Crop diversity Benefits over monoculture (why?) Cengage Learning 2015 Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on Low-Input Polycultures (contd.) Slash-and-burn agriculture Subsistence agriculture in tropical forests

Clear and burn a small plot Grow many crops that mature at different times Reduced soil erosion Less need for fertilizer and water Cengage Learning 2015 Organic Agriculture Is on the Rise Crops grown with ecologically sound and sustainable methods No synthetic pesticides or fertilizers Has a number of environmental advantages

Usually produces less yield than conventional agriculture Cengage Learning 2015 Industrialized Agriculture Uses synthetic inorganic fertilizers and sewage sludge to supply plant nutrients Makes use of synthetic chemical pesticides Uses conventional and genetically modified seeds Depends on nonrenewable fossil fuels (mostly oil and natural gas)

Produces significant air and water pollution and greenhouse gases Is globally export-oriented Uses antibiotics and growth hormones to produce meat and meat products Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-7a, p. 283 Organic Agriculture Emphasizes prevention of soil erosion and the use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure and compost, but no sewage sludge to help replace lost plant nutrients

Employs crop rotation and biological pest control Uses no genetically modified seeds Reduces fossil fuel use and increases use of renewable energy such as solar and wind power for generating electricity Produces less air and water pollution and greenhouse gases Is regionally and locally oriented Uses no antibiotics or growth hormones to produce meat and meat products Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-7b, p. 283

A Closer Look at Industrialized Crop Production Green Revolution increase crop yields Monocultures of high-yield key crops Rice, wheat, and corn Large amounts of fertilizers, pesticides, water Multiple cropping Second Green Revolution Fast growing dwarf varieties World grain has tripled in production Cengage Learning 2015

Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-8a, p. 284 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-8b, p. 284 Case Study: Industrialized Food Production in the United States Agribusiness Average farmer feeds 129 people Annual sales greater than auto, steel, and housing combined

Food production very efficient Americans spend 10% of income on food Hidden costs of subsidies and costs of pollution and environmental degradation NOT FULL COST Cengage Learning 2015 Crossbreeding/Genetic Engineering Produce New Varieties of Crops/Livestock First gene revolution Cross-breeding through artificial selection Slow process

Amazing results Genetic engineering second gene revolution Alter organisms DNA Genetic modified organisms (GMOs) transgenic organisms (spider venom in corn) Cengage Learning 2015 Meat Production Has Grown Steadily Animals for meat raised in: Pastures and rangelands Feedlots (CAFOs)

Meat production increased more than sixfold between 1950 and 2010 Increased demand for grain Demand is expected to go higher Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-9, p. 285 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-10, p. 286 Fish and Shellfish Production Have Increased Dramatically

Fishery Concentration of a particular species suitable for commercial harvesting 30% are overfished 57% harvested at full capacity Cengage Learning 2015 Fish and Shellfish Production Have Increased Dramatically (contd.) Aquaculture, blue revolution Worlds fastest-growing type

of food production Dominated by operations that raise herbivorous species Cengage Learning 2015 140 120 Production (millions of metric tons) 100 80

Wild catch 60 40 Aquaculture 20 0 1950 1960 1970

1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year Total World Fish Catch Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-12, p. 287

Industrialized Food Production Requires Huge Inputs of Energy Mostly nonrenewable energy (oil and natural gas) Agriculture uses 20% of all energy use in the U.S. Amount of energy per calorie used in the U.S. has declined 50% since the 1970s Cengage Learning 2015 12-3 What Environmental Problems Arise

from Food Production? Future food production may be limited by: soil erosion and degradation, desertification, irrigation water shortages, air and water pollution, climate change, and loss of biodiversity Cengage Learning 2015 Producing Food Has Major Environmental

Impacts Agriculture has harmful affects on: Biodiversity Soil Water Air Human health (#IRONY) Cengage Learning 2015 Natural Capital Degradation Food Production Biodiversity Loss

Conversion of grasslands, forests, and wetlands to crops or rangeland Fish kills from pesticide runoff Killing wild predators to protect livestock Soil Erosion Loss of fertility Salinization Waterlogging

Loss of genetic Desertification agrobiodiversity replaced by monoculture strains Water Aquifer depletion Increased runoff, sediment pollution, and flooding from cleared land Pollution from pesticides and

fertilizers Algal blooms and fish kills caused by runoff of fertilizers and farm wastes Air Pollution Emissions of greenhouse gas CO2 from fossil fuel use N2O from inorganic fertilizer use, and methane (CH4) from

cattle Human Health Nitrates in drinking water (blue baby) Pesticide residues in drinking water, food, and air Livestock wastes in drinking and swimming water Other air pollutants from fossil fuel use and

Bacterial pesticide contamination of sprays meat Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-13, p. 288 Topsoil Erosion Is a Serious Problem in Parts of the World Soil erosion Movement of soil by wind and water Natural causes + human causes

Two major harmful effects of soil erosion Loss of soil fertility Water pollution Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-15, p. 289 Serious concern Some concern Stable or nonvegetative

Cengage Learning 2015 Stepped Art Fig. 12-16, p. 289 Drought and Human Activities Are Degrading Drylands Desertification Productive potential of topsoil falls by 10% or more Prolonged drought, human activities Human agriculture accelerates desertification

Dust bowl Severe wind erosion of topsoil Cengage Learning 2015 Excessive Irrigation Has Serious Consequences Soil salinization Gradual accumulation of salts in the soil from irrigation water Lowers crop yields and can even kill plants Affects 10% of world croplands Waterlogging Irrigation water gradually raises water table

Can prevent roots from getting oxygen Affects 10% of world croplands Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-18, p. 292 Agriculture Contributes to Air Pollution and Climate Change Clearing and burning of forests for croplands 1/4 of all human-generated greenhouse gases

Livestock contributes 18% of gases Methane in cow belches (not a joke) Cengage Learning 2015 Food and Biofuel Production Systems Have Caused Major Losses of Biodiversity Biodiversity threatened when: Forest and grasslands are replaced with croplands tropical forests Agrobiodiversity threatened when Genetic diversity used on farms to produce food

What is the importance of seed banks? Cengage Learning 2015 There Is Controversy over Genetically Engineered Foods Potential to solve world food problems So far genetically modified crops have failed to provide extensive benefits Potential environmental effects of genetically modified populations in the wild Creating hybrids with natural organisms

Cengage Learning 2015 Trade-Offs Genetically Modified Crops and Foods Projected Advantages Projected Disadvantages May need less fertilizer, pesticides, and water

Have unpredictable genetic and ecological effects Can be resistant to insects, disease, frost, and drought May put toxins in food Can grow faster Can promote pesticideresistant insects,

herbicide-resistant weeds, and plant diseases May tolerate higher levels of herbicides Could disrupt seed market and reduce biodiversity Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-19, p. 293

There Are Limits to the Expansion of the Green Revolutions Usually require large inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and water Often too expensive for many farmers How can we expand the green revolution? Cengage Learning 2015 Industrialized Meat Production Has Harmful Environmental Consequences

Pros: Increased meat supply Reduced overgrazing Kept food prices down Cons: Uses large amounts of water Harmful environmental costs Cengage Learning 2015 Trade-Offs Animal Feedlots Advantages

Disadvantages Increased meat production Large inputs of grain, fish meal, water, and fossil fuels Higher profits Less land use Reduced overgrazing

Reduced soil erosion Protection of biodiversity Greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) emissions Concentration of animal wastes that can pollute water Use of antibiotics can increase genetic resistance to microbes in humans

Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-20, p. 294 Aquaculture Can Harm Aquatic Ecosystems Several environmental problems 1. Fish are caught to feed to other fish Inefficient process Environmental toxins 2. Spread invasive plant species

3. Fish farms produce waste Cengage Learning 2015 Trade-Offs Aquaculture Advantages Disadvantages High efficiency Large inputs of land, feed, and water

High yield Large waste output Reduced overharvesting of fisheries Loss of mangrove forests and estuaries Jobs and profits Dense populations

vulnerable to disease Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-21, p. 295 12-4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably? We can sharply cut pesticide use without decreasing crop yields by using a mix of: Cultivation techniques Biological pest controls Small amounts of selected chemical pesticides as a last resort (integrated

pest management) Cengage Learning 2015 Nature Controls the Populations of Most Pests Pests Interfere with human welfare Natural enemies control pests Predators, parasites, disease organisms In natural ecosystems In many polyculture agroecosystems What will happen if we kill the pests?

Cengage Learning 2015 We Use Pesticides to Help Control Pest Populations Pesticides Chemicals used to kill or control populations of pests Biopesticides Produced by plants to ward off insects and herbivores Cengage Learning 2015

We Use Pesticides to Help Control Pest Populations (contd.) First-generation pesticides Borrowed from plants Second-generation pesticides Lab produced DDT and others Broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum agents Persistence varies Cengage Learning 2015

Synthetic Pesticides Have Several Advantages Save human lives Increases food supplies and profits for farmers Work quickly For many, health risks are very low relative to benefits New pest control methods: safer and more effective Cengage Learning 2015 Synthetic Pesticides Have Several Drawbacks

Accelerate rate of genetic resistance in pests Expensive for farmers Some insecticides kill natural predators/ parasites that help control pests Pollution in the environment Some harm wildlife Some are human health hazards Cengage Learning 2015 Trade-Offs Conventional Chemical Pesticides Advantages

Disadvantages Expand food supplies Promote genetic resistance Raise profits Can kill pests natural enemies and harm wildlife and people

Work fast Are safe if used properly Can pollute air, water, and land Are expensive for farmers Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-23, p. 297 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-24, p. 298

Case Study: Ecological Surprises: The Law of Unintended Consequences DDT used to kill malariacarrying mosquitoes Have also killed other insects and other creatures Lizards Cats Wasps Cengage Learning 2015 Pesticide Use Has Not Reduced U.S. Crop Losses to Pests 1942 1997: crop losses from insects

increased from 7% to 13%, even with 10x increase in pesticide use High environmental, health, and social costs with use Use alternative pest management practices Pesticide industry disputes these findings Cengage Learning 2015 Laws/Treaties Can Help to Protect Us from the Harmful Effects of Pesticides

U.S. federal agencies and laws EPA, USDA, FDA Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, 1947 Food Quality Protection Act, 1996 Effects of active and inactive pesticide ingredients are poorly documented U.S. exports many banned pesticides Poisons can be transmitted in the atmosphere World is still global and interconnected Cengage Learning 2015 There Are Alternatives to Synthetic

Pesticides Fool the pest Crop rotation; changing planting times Provide homes for pest enemies Use polyculture Implant genetic resistance genetic engineering Bring in natural enemies Predators, parasites, and diseases Cengage Learning 2015

There Are Alternatives to Synthetic Pesticides (contd.) Use insect perfumes Pheromones Bring in hormones Interfere with pest life cycle Alternative methods of weed control Crop rotation, cover crops, and mulches

Cengage Learning 2015 Solutions: An Example of Genetic Engineering to Reduce Pest Damage Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-25, p. 300 IPM Is a Component of More Sustainable Agriculture Integrated pest management (IPM) Coordinate b/t cultivation, biological

controls and chemical tools to reduce crop damage to an economically tolerable level Reduces pollution and pesticide costs Cengage Learning 2015 IPM Is a Component of More Sustainable Agriculture Disadvantages 1. Requires expert knowledge 2. High initial costs

3. Government opposition Cengage Learning 2015 12-5 How Can We Improve Food Security? We can improve food security by: reducing poverty and chronic malnutrition, relying more on locally grown food, and cutting food waste Cengage Learning 2015

Use Government Policies to Improve Food Production and Security Control prices to make food affordable Provide subsidies to farmers Let the marketplace decide Working in New Zealand and Brazil Cengage Learning 2015 Other Government/Private Programs Are Increasing Food Security

Immunizing children against childhood diseases Prevent dehydration in infants and children Preserve diverse gene pool Cengage Learning 2015 We Can Grow and Buy More Food Locally and Cut Food Waste Community-supported agriculture (CSAs) Buy shares of a local farmers crops

Weekly deliveries of whats fresh Reduce fossil fuel energy costs Vertical farms Potential for the future Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-27, p. 304 12-6 How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably? We can produce food more

sustainably by: Using resources more efficiently Sharply decreasing the harmful environmental effects of industrialized food production Eliminating government subsidies that promote such harmful impacts Cengage Learning 2015 Many Farmers Are Reducing Soil Erosion Soil conservation Terracing Contour planting

Strip cropping with cover crop Alley cropping, agroforestry Windbreaks or shelterbelts Conservation-tillage farming Identify erosion hotspots Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-28, p. 305 We Can Restore Soil Fertility Organic fertilizer

Animal manure Green manure Compost Manufactured inorganic fertilizer Nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium Crop rotation Cengage Learning 2015 We Can Reduce Soil Salinization and Desertification Soil salinization Solutions are expensive and cumbersome

Desertification Decrease: Population growth Overgrazing Deforestation Destructive forms of planting, irrigation, and mining Cengage Learning 2015 Solutions Soil Salinization Prevention Cleanup

Reduce irrigation Flush soil (expensive and inefficient) Use more efficient irrigation methods Switch to salttolerant crops Stop growing crops for 25 years

Install underground drainage systems Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-29, p. 307 Some Producers Practice More Sustainable Aquaculture Open-ocean aquaculture Choose herbivorous fish Recirculating aquaculture

Polyculture Cengage Learning 2015 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-31, p. 308 We Can Produce Meat and Dairy Products More Efficiently Shift to more grain-efficient forms of protein Beef from rangelands and pastures, not feedlots Develop meat substitutes

Eat less meat Cengage Learning 2015 Beef cattle 7 Pigs Chicken Fish (catfish or carp)

4 2.2 2 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-32, p. 308 We Can Shift to More Sustainable Food Production Sustainable agriculture Uses fewer inputs

Creates less pollution Contributes less to global warming Organic farming Has many benefits Requires more labor Cengage Learning 2015 We Can Shift to More Sustainable Food Production (contd.) Strategies for more sustainable agriculture Research on organic agriculture with human nutrition in mind Education of how organic agricultural systems

work Subsidies and foreign aid Training programs; college curricula Increased use of hydroponics Greater use of alternative energy Cengage Learning 2015 Solutions More Sustainable Agriculture More Less High-yield polyculture

Soil erosion Organic fertilizers Biological pest control Integrated pest management Efficient irrigation Perennial crops Soil salinization Water pollution Aquifer depletion

Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of biodiversity and agrobiodiversity Crop rotation Water-efficient crops Fossil fuel use Soil conservation Greenhouse gas emissions

Subsidies for sustainable farming Cengage Learning 2015 Subsidies for unsustainable farming Fig. 12-33, p. 309 Solutions Organic Farming Improves soil fertility Reduces soil erosion

Retains more water in soil during drought years Uses about 30% less energy per unit of yield Lowers CO2 emissions Reduces water pollution by recycling livestock wastes Eliminates pollution from pesticides Increases biodiversity above and below ground Benefits wildlife such as birds and bats

Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-34, p. 309 Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 12-36, p. 312 Three Big Ideas 1. About 1 billion people have health problems because they do not get enough to eat and 1.6 billion people face health problems from eating too much 2. Modern industrialized agriculture has

a greater harmful impact on the environment than any other human activity Cengage Learning 2015 Three Big Ideas (contd.) 3. We should switch to more sustainable forms of food production Greatly reduce harmful environmental impacts of industrialized food production

systems Will likely increase food security Cengage Learning 2015 Tying It All Together: Growing Power and Sustainability Urban farm providing food to people in a food desert Rely more on solar energy Topsoil conservation Organic pest control Cengage Learning 2015

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