Chapter 12 Multiple Access 12.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill

Chapter 12 Multiple Access 12.1 Copyright  The McGraw-Hill

Chapter 12 Multiple Access 12.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 12.1 Data link layer divided into two functionality-oriented sublayers

Upper sublayer responsible for data link control Called LLC for flow and error control Lower sublayer - responsible for resolving access the shared media Called MAC for multiple acceess resolution

12.2 Figure 12.2 Taxonomy of multiple-access protocols discussed in this chapter 12.3 12-1 RANDOM ACCESS In random access or contention methods, no station is

superior to another station and none is assigned the control over another. No station permits, or does not permit, another station to send. At each instance, a station that has data to send uses a procedure defined by the protocol to make a decision on whether or not to send. The decision depends on the state of the medium (idle or busy). Topics discussed in this section:

ALOHA Carrier Sense Multiple Access Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance 12.4 Figure 12.3 Frames in a pure ALOHA network

Pure ALOHA: 1. Each station sends a frame whenever is has a frame to send 2. One channel to share, possibility of collision between frames from different stations 12.5 Figure 12.4 Procedure for pure ALOHA protocol

12.6 Figure 12.6 Frames in a slotted ALOHA network Slotted ALOHA: 1. We divide the time into slots and force the station to send only at the beginning of the time slot 12.7

ALOHA: Vulnerable Time 8 Slotted ALOHA: Vulnerable Time 9

Figure 12.10 Behavior of three persistence methods 1-Persistent-after station finds the line idle, send its frame Nonpersistent-senses the

line; idle: sends immediately; not idle: waits random amount of time and senses again p-Persistent-the channel has time slots with duration

12.10 Figure 12.11 Flow diagram for three persistence methods 12.11 Figure 12.14 Flow diagram for the CSMA/CD (Page 375)

12.12 Figure 12.16 Timing in CSMA/CA Avoid collisions on wireless network because they cannot be detected IFS- In CSMA/CA, the IFS can also be used to define the priority of a station or a frame. Contention window- In CSMA/CA, if the station finds the channel busy, it does not restart the timer of the contention window;

it stops the timer and restarts it when the channel becomes idle. Acknowledgment- Positive acknowledgment and time out timer guarantee receiver has received the frame 12.13 Figure 12.17 Flow diagram for CSMA/CA

12.14

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