Diversity: Laticodtidae- krates- 5 species (1 is fw in Solomon Islands) Hyrophidae- 54 different species All derived from Colubrid ancestor; colubrids evolved 40 mya;
Laticotids evolved from colubrids 30 mya Location: Laticotids- live from east coast India to Japan and come to the tip of Cape York (Australia) Hydrophiids- found from south tip of Africa to India to South East Asian Islands to Japan to north half of
Australia Habitat: Primarily tropical; coastal estuaries, coral reefs, open sea Behavior: Often schooling in aggregations Not aggressive but human fatalities have
occurred Prey: Feed on small fish or squid, which are killed with powerful venom Predators (few): sharks, snapper, grouper, crabs, saltwater crocodiles, raptors; they descend to escape Osmoregulation: skin is impermeable to salts; salts eliminated by sublingual gland
Reproduction: Krates are oviparous and lay eggs on land Hydrophiids are viviparous and produce young in the water Not much known about breeding However, olive sea snake breed in spring; seasonal courtship displays Saltwater crocodiles
Largest living crocodilians: 6-7 m long Eggs laid and incubated on land Tropical and subtropical Marine Iguanas
Marine lizard endemic to Galapagos islands Herbivorous: graze on seaweeds Salt-glands on nose to eliminate excess salt Recently observed feeding on land for first time They return to land to escape predators.
Found in fossil record 200 mya (Triassic) Common in Cretaceous (130 mya) Present day genera originated 60 (Eocene) and 10 mya (Pleistocene) Not a very diverse group Mostly tropical and subtropical Class Reptilia Order Chelonia- warm to temperate and boreal
seas ex. leatherback, ridley's, kemps Order CheloniaF. Cheloniidae- green, flatback, hawksbill, loggerhead F. Dermochelidae- leatherback reduced shell, dermal bone scutes compose shell F. Emydidae- diamond back terrapin Hawaii species- green, hawksbill, leatherback, Olive Ridley flatback
Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Natator depressus Diet: sea cucumbers, soft corals, jellyfish Size: < 1 m in length Conservation Status: vunerable Habitat: near continental shelf, shallow, soft bottom sea beds Range: northern part of Australia
Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Green turtle Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Chelonia mydas Diet: seagrass and algae Size: ~500lbs Conservation Status: threatened Habitat: high energy ocean beaches, convergence zones in the pelagic habitat,
benthic feeding grounds in relatively protected waters Range: throughout world in all tropical and subtropical oceans hawksbill Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles
Order: Chelonia: Turtles and Tortoises Family: Chelonidae: Marine Turtles Scientific Name: Caretta caretta Diet: Crustaceans Size: 76 - 102 cm (30 - 40 in) Conservation Status:Vulnerable Habitat: coasts, open sea Range: Temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans
Atlantic, Pacific, & Indian Ocean reduced shell, dermal bone scutes compose shell 7 dorsal and 5 ventral dermal bones Physiology: Poikilothermic (cold blooded)
Skin has scales Speed- 35 mph Breath holding- 2 hrs, when sleeping or resting Maturity- 10-50 yrs for green Cannot retract heads like terrestrial turtles Lacrimal gland- salt secretion (drinks seawater) Anatomy Has both internal and external skeletonprovided protection and support for organs Fused ribs
Powerful sense of smell- find natal beach No ears, but can perceive low frequency sound and vibrations Male & female- difference in tail size; males tail extends past rear flippers, females is shorter Mating- at sea Migration- occurs in late spring; female is accompanied by male Green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles
from feeding area to nest in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Egg laying behavior- return to same beach (natal beach) Kemps Ridley nesting Usually nest at night Front flippers dig pit, rear flippers carve out burrow
Egg tooth- used to chip away at shell Group effort to get out of nestemerge at night (safer) and head towards brightest light Artificial lights- confuse hatchlings Turtle nest Cross section Leatherback hatching
Kemps Ridley hatchlings Clutch size- about 100 eggs & covers pit with sand Egg incubation- 2 months depending upon species Sex determined by temperature- males lower temp, females higher temp Sea grass and Algae- adult green sea turtle Epiphytes on sea grass, Sponges, fish, crabs, conch- loggerheads (suction feeders)
Adults- sharks, humans Hawaii- 100-350 nesting females French Frigate Shoals in the Northwest Hawaiian chain A. Hunters B. Fisheries C. Marine Debris D. Coastal Development and Habitat Degradation E. Fibropapilloma
Meat Eggs- nearly forbidden in all countries with nesting beaches Soup Jewelry Leather Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): turtle commerce prohibited in countries that signed agreement
Law enforcement- in Hawaii, turtles protected under Endangered Species Act Riding or harassing- $100,000 fine + prison time Bringing turtle products into Hawaii- $20,000 + prison time Fishing regulationsShrimp Trawlers - incidental catch by commercial shrimp fish nets: drowned 10,000 turtles each year Drift nets, gill nets Turtle Excluder Device (TED) Increase sea turtle populations:
Ranching- eggs or hatchlings from wild populations Farming- originally from wild populations, for breeding stock Catch Statistics (1987) FAO yearbook on Fishery Statistics 3100 metric tons Western Central Atlantic1200 Eastern Central Pacific864 South East Pacific305
Western Central Pacific258 North West Pacific190 Eastern Central Atlantic153 Eastern Indian Ocean50 Western Indian Ocean37 Mediterranean 20 South East Atlantic10 Marine Debris- plastic bags, soda can plastic rings, fishing line, oil and tar
Costal development and habitat degradationnoise, light, beach obstructions- affect nesting habitat Fibropapilloma- virus in Green turtles Affects ability to feed, see, move about, or breath May be due to pollutants, blood parasites, or habitat change Kaneohe Bay (1991)- >50% infected
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