: - : - : : 2 -

  :    -          :     -          : : 2    -

: - : - : : 2 - - : - : - - : - : -

- : 3 - : - - : : : : : : )2)Exo peptidase (3E

) 4 :( )1)Endo peptidase )5E ( )

1)Endo peptidase 1- - -3 - -2 - -5 - 4-

2)Exo peptidase -3 -2

- : 5 1- ) (

- : : : : : 1) Transamination 2) Deamination 3) Disposal of Ammonia 1)Transamination

: : - - : - : Transamination Reactions The first step of amino acid degradation Transfer of amino group from many amino acids to limited of alfa keto glutarate

8 9 - 10 2)Deamination - : - - - : .

2-1 - 2-2 - 11 : : : - : PLP

12 - : FAD

- : NADP NAD - 2-1 Glutamate dehydrogenase : : : : . ADP :.

NADH ATP 13 14 15 - 2-2 16

- : - - L - + L -

NH 3 NH 3 + -

L - - L - 1 L - 2

RCOCOOH + L - RCH(NH2)COOH +NH2 + 17 1 L -

LNH3 + NH 3 + H2S + NH 3 + H2S + L +NH2

18 3)Disposal of Amino Groups : : 4 . . . (1 : Glutamine Synthase (2 : : : : : : ) . : : : : :(

19 )3 ATP + 2+ 2ADP + P +

: . )4 . 4 - : - - : - : 1

- : - : 2 20 21 Overall reaction 2 NH3 + CO2

O || H2NCNH2 + H2O Energy required ) 3 ATP ) 22 - .

. - : Liver very effective at eliminating ammonia from blood Portal blood ammonia = 300 1000 uM Systemic blood ammonia = 20uM - : - : 23 24

25 Production of ALA & GLN Transamination of AA to form GLU AA + aKG <-> aKA + GLU Formation of ALA GLU + pyr <-> aKG + ALA Formation of GLN

GLU <-> aKG + NH3 NH3 + GLU -> GLN 26 - : - : 27 28

: 29 - - ) mRNA RNA( ) tRNA (

RNA 30 DNA RNA 31 Translation - : - :

- RNA . - : - : . . - DNA - : mRNA

- : - - : . 32 mRNA - : AUG - : - : - : - . - : - :

mRNA - : AUG P . - - - : tRNA

- : . . - : - : - : - : P A - : . . 33 - : - : tRNA - :

A . - - : - : P A . - - : - : . 34 - : - : - mRNA - : . -

- : tRNA ) p - : ( - : tRNA ) - : - : ( A - : P

. 35 A - : - :

. - : - : - - : - : . - : mRNA . - - : . - : - : GTP - . 36

37 39 - : DNA - : RNA . -

DNA - : ( ) RNA - : . 40 - :

- : ) ( . - : - : - : - - .

41 - - 42

- - : . - - - : - - : -1- - . - - - : - xanthine

. - : - )( . 43 - - - ) -1 ( - -

xanthine - 44 - - - : - - : - - : - . - - : .

45 - - - - - xanthine - - 46

- - . - - - : . - : - : - - . - .

- ) (. 47 -

- - - - - 48

- : : - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - . 49 50

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