Preventing Youth Delinquency Identifying School Risk & Protective

Preventing Youth Delinquency Identifying School Risk & Protective

Preventing Youth Delinquency Identifying School Risk & Protective Factors Christine A. Christle 2004 School to Prison Pipeline School Failure Suspension Dropout Delinquency The Co$t of Incarceration Penn State or The State Pen

Its your money! Risk Factors - Delinquency Life Domains Individual Family School Community Peer Relations School

Weak academics Low school involvement Truancy Suspension Expulsion Dropout Weak Academics & Poverty Exposure to print material

Low SES - 40 hrs High SES - 1000 hrs Vocabulary skills Following directions Failure Cycle Cognitive deficits lead to poor academic performance Poor academic performance is a strong risk factor for delinquency

Weak Academics & Behavior Low school achievement predicts delinquency 20% of students with EBD are arrested while in school 58% are arrested 5 years after school 70-87% of incarcerated youth have LD or EBD School Factors 3 Studies in Kentucky 747 Elementary Schools

161 Middle Schools 196 High Schools Elementary School Study Stage 1 Correlation analysis of school characteristics & academic achievement Stage 2

Regression analysis Stage 3 Qualitative analysis of climate in 3 HPHA & 3 HPLA schools Kentucky Elementary School Data - 2000/2001 The Relationship Between Poverty and Achievement 3.000 2.000 1.000 0.000 -4.000

-3.000 -2.000 -1.000 0.000 -1.000 Free & Reduced Lunch Z Scores -2.000 -3.000

CTBS Z Scores 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 Research Questions 1. What specific school characteristics are related to

academic achievement? 2. What characteristics separate HPHA schools from HPLA schools? Results Stages 1 & 2 School Characteristics Related to Academic Achievement Correlation Poverty: % of students in FRLP - 34% Attendance rate: + 26%

Regression Together (FRLP % & ATT) 42% Results Stage 3 Case Studies - HPHA vs HPLA

Smaller schools Better building conditions More adult/student interactions More positive interactions Higher staff morale & collegiality Higher level of student task engagement More money per student More family involvement Suspension Most common disciplinary consequence in schools Disproportionately used Ethnicity, SES, gender, academic

competence Most at Middle School level Poor academic skill - strong predictor of school exclusion Suspension Rates increasing US: steady increase over last 25 years Kentucky: 00-01 68,523 01-02 74,054

02-03 76,886 Most are repeat offenders Middle School Study Stage 1 Correlation analysis of school characteristics & suspension

Stage 2 Comparison analysis of 20 HSS & 20 LSS Stage 3 Qualitative analysis of climate in 4 HSS & 4 LSS The Relationship Between Poverty and Achievement in KY Middle Schools for 20012002 (FRLP Percentages and CTBS Percentiles) 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00

-4.000 -3.000 -2.000 -1.000 0.000 FRLP z Scores -1.00 -2.00

-3.00 CTBS z Scores 1.000 2.000 3.000 Research Questions 1. What specific school characteristics are related to suspension rate?

2. What characteristics separate high-suspending schools from low-suspending schools? Results Stage 1 & 2 Characteristics Differentially Related

20 HSS Number of board violations Dropout rate Low SES Law violations $tudent $pending

20 LSS Attendance rate Academic test scores Ethnic background C/W HSS and LSS Difference - Suspension 1 Suspension Rate 1 -

Percent Caucasian Students HSS and LSS Difference - Ethnicity HSS and LSS Difference - Poverty Percent FRLP Enrollmen t 1 - Results Stage 3 Case Studies - LSS vs HSS

Administrative Leadership More support for staff Proactive discipline philosophy Teacher & Staff Behaviors More positive interactions Active teaching style Results Stage 3 Case Studies - LSS vs HSS

Student Behaviors More positive interactions More engagement in class Structure & Programming Better building condition More ambiance School-wide focus More school connections Dropout Low SES youth 2.4 X more likely to drop out Suspended youth 3 X more likely to drop out & become delinquent

Over 80% of prison inmates are dropouts 1/2 of heads of households on welfare are dropouts High School Study Stage 1 Correlation analysis of school

characteristics & dropout Stage 2 Comparison analysis of 20 HDOS & 20 LDOS Stage 3 Qualitative analysis of climate in 4 HDOS & 4 LDOS Dropout and Achievement 14.00% 12.00% 10.00%

8.00% Series1 6.00% Dropout Rate 01-02 4.00% 2.00% 0.00% 0.00 10.00 20.00

30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 CTBS NP Scores 01-02 70.00 80.00 90.00

100.00 Research Questions 1. What specific school characteristics are related to dropout rate? 2. What characteristics separate high-dropout schools from lowdropout schools?

Current Study School Variables Enrollment FRLP % # Rule violations # Law violations Suspension rate

Retention rate Expulsion rate Ethnic background Attendance rate Academic achievement

scores % of students with disabilities Results: Pending Lessons Learned Thus Far Resilience Meaningful Participation Students help develop dress code, lunch menus

High Expectations All students & staff (PRIDE program) Caring Adult Relationships All staff involved with students in clubs, activities

BIG IDEA ! SCHOOL STAFF KNOW Problems Solutions ASK THEM! Dilemma How can we transform this research into practice? Thank You Christine A. Christle University of Kentucky

The National Center on Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice

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