WHY THEY CAME Oral histories of Jewish immigrants to Pittsburgh Our synagogue was in a room with the windows blacked out. We were afraid to speak Yiddish on the streets. We often had to hide from people who came to persecute the Jews. During the pogrom (organized government persecution of the Jews) in _______ around 1905, my collarbone was broken and the back of my head still bears the scar of a dagger.
I still have a scar on my thigh where a _____ soldier struck me with his sword. I was three years old and my mother tried to protect me with her body, but he got to me. It did not seem reasonable for me to serve the Czar in the Army. WHY THEY CAME Oral histories of Italian immigrants The main reason was bread. There was always bread in ____. Life in _____ was better. There was always work in _____.
I never went to an _______ school, but I insisted that my children attend university in ______ where they had more chance. I have progressed; I have lived well. I have been able to send my children to good schools so that today they hold positions of respect. My brother who stayed here in Italy cannot say that. II. The New Immigration Powerful pull of America's urban magnets felt in faraway Europe: Seemingly endless stream of immigrants poured in from old mother continent:
1850s-1870s: more than 2 million migrants stepped onto America's shores 1880s: more than 5 million cascaded in New high for single year reached in 1882, when 788,992 arrivedor more than 2,100 a day (see Figure 25.3) II. The New Immigration Until 1880s most immigrants came from: British Isles and western Europe, chiefly Germany and Ireland; Significant were more than 300,000 Chinese
immigrants Many Chinese and Irish immigrants faced nativism By end of last decades of century, old immigrants adjusted well to American life: Built supportive ethnic organizations Melded into established farm communities/urban life Many still lived, worked, and worshiped among their own
Largely accepted as American by native-born In 1880s, character of immigrant stream changed drastically IMMIGRATION Immigrants being used Figure 25-4 p543 II. The New Immigration
(cont.) So-called New Immigrants: Came from southern and eastern Europe Italians, Jews, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles Came from countries with little history of democratic government These new people totaled only 19% of immigrants (1880s) By first decade of twentieth century, they constituted 66% of total inflow Hived together in cities like New York and Chicago in Little Italys and Little Polands
IMMIGRATION Cleveland quote on Immigration p546 OLD VS NEW RELIGION RELIGION Protestant
BIRTHPLACE BIRTHPLACE North/Western Europe REASONS REASONS Both escaping poverty, religious and political persecution;
DESTINATION DESTINATION Moved to farms Moved to cities in the in the Midwest Northeast OCCUPATION OCCUPATION Catholic and Jewish Southern/Eastern Europe
Became farmers Unskilled workers Old vs New Immigrants American Citizens: What weight can my vote have against this flood of ignorance, stupidity and fraud? p550 American Protective Association Americans formed groups to oppose the immigrant threat
Supported laws to restrict certain groups of immigrants. Immigrant groups: Chinese, Central and Southern Europeans. Why did Old Immigrants resent New Immigrants. inferior stocks Plot by European governments to unload their prisoners and mentally ill. Chinese worked for 5 years and left the U.S. with U.S. money Labor Unions hated immigrants because employers would hire scab labor to replace workers if they had a Labor Strike US Govt. restricts immigration with the following:
Ellis Island was built in 1892 as the 1st Immigration Center Later, closed in the 1940s Today it is a museum. The goal was to screen immigrants coming from Europe.
Immigrants took physical examinations and were held at Ellis Island before they were released to the US mainland. Many American nativists disliked new immigrants because they would not assimilate into American society. Would stay segregated in their ethnic
neighborhoods. URBAN PROBLEMS The Settlement House Movement Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty Social Gospel movementpreaches salvation through service to poor Settlement housescommunity centers in slums, help immigrants Run by college-educated women, they:
- provide educational, cultural, social services - send visiting nurses to the sick - help with personal, job, financial problems Jane Addams founds Hull House in 1889 Lillian Wald- Henry Street Settlement 1893. POPULATION GROWTH 1870 40 million population
75% lived in rural areas 1900 76 million population 60% lived in rural areas CITIES In 1860 no
American city could boast a million inhabitants. 1890, New York, Chicago and Philadelphia had passed the million mark. Cities GROWTH OF URBANIZATION
Cities grew rapidly near raw materials industrial areas transportation routes. Opportunities in the job market. Terrible Conditions Poor sanitary and living conditions Tenement apartments URBAN OPPORTUNITIES
Immigrants Settle in Cities Industrialization leads to urbanization, or growth of cities Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap housing, factory jobs Americanizationassimilate people into main culture Schools, voluntary groups teach citizenship skills English, American history, cooking, etiquette
Ethnic communities provide social support URBAN OPPORTUNITIES Migration from Country to City Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood
18901910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence Find segregation, discrimination in North too Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension CHANGE IN LABOR FORCE Crop prices decrease, new machinery and corrupt railroads forced many farmers to look for new jobs.
URBAN PROBLEMS Housing Working-class families live in houses on outskirts or boardinghouses Later, row houses built for single families Immigrants take over row houses, 23 families per house Tenementsmultifamily urban dwellings, are overcrowded, unsanitary
Transportation Mass transit move large numbers of people along fixed routes By 20th century, transit systems link city to suburbs URBAN PROBLEMS Water
1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908 Sanitation Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection
Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses-------often do not do job properly By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments URBAN PROBLEMS Crime As
population grows, thieves flourish Early police forces too small to be effective Fire Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters Most firefighters volunteers, not always available 1900, most cities have full-time,
professional fire departments Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer CITIES Job opportunities for Women School teaching Domestic service Women doctors Lawyers, typists, telephone girls, librarians, journalists and social workers.
Women gainfully employed rose from 2.5 million in 1880 to 8 million in 1910. CITIES Cities were attractive with telephones bright lights and electricity. Central heating public water systems indoor plumbing sewage disposal
asphalt pavements and transportation. Cities CITIES Cities offered beautiful parks, museums, libraries, churches, hospitals and schools. Became the intellectual nerve center of the country.
Cities URBANIZATION Chicago became the main railroad junction in the U.S. Immigrants move to Chicago because of the job opportunities Meatpacking Steel mills Cattle industry Multi-cultural
community PHILOSOPHIES OF BLACK LEADERS Booker T. Washington How do Black Americans overcome segregation? Southern Perspective Former slave Wrote a book/Up From Slavery Before you are considered equal in
society--must be self sufficient like most Americans Stressed vocational education for Black Americans Gradualism and economic self-sufficiency PHILOSOPHIES OF BLACK LEADERS W.E.B. Dubois How do Black Americans overcome segregation?
Northern Perspective Fought for immediate Black equality in society Talented 10%: Demanded the top 10% of the talented Black population be placed into the power positions Gain equality by breaking into power structure Founder of NAACP
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