Recurrent exertional compartment syndrome Intracompartmental Pressure Testing Dr

Recurrent exertional compartment syndrome Intracompartmental Pressure Testing Dr

Recurrent exertional compartment syndrome Intracompartmental Pressure Testing Dr Leesa Huguenin MP Sports Physicians www.mpsportsphysicians.com.au

RECS 95 % lower leg 45% anterior compartment Lateral, deep posterior and superficial posterior follow 85- 95% are bilateral Also possible; Forearm (kayak, motorcross, sailboard)

thigh, hands and rarely feet Risk factors Increased muscle swelling genetic/ overuse/ biomechanical control Increased fascial thickness/ toughness (?????) Reduced muscle capillary density ? Creatine supplementation (transient)

Table 3 Diagnostic criteria of intracompartmental pressure measurement Authors Year Diagnostically relevant pressure values French and Price" 1962 Postexercise fall time <30 min in normal subjects, > 100 min in patients Reneman"7 1975 At six minutes postexercise pressure >15 cm H2O (11 mm Hg) above resting pressure Puranen" 1981 Mean pressure of 50 mm Hg during running. Resting

of no value, but did observe slow postexercise fall McDermott3' 1982 Mean pressure of 85 mm Hg during running Mubarak and Hargens5" 1982 Resting pressure >15 mm Hg. Exercise pressure >75 mm Hg. Pressure remains >30 mm Hg for >5 min after exercise Qvarfordt et al" 1983 Pressures raised before, during, and after exercise. Postexercise decline 40 min. Ti 6 minWallensten" 1983 No difference at rest, still raised 10 min postexercise (anterior), returned to normal <10 min (deep posterior)

Detmer et al" 1985 At rest, normal pressure < 15 mm Hg Styf and Korner" 1986 Muscle relaxation pressure Styf and Korner34 1986 Postexercise pressure >35 mm Hg remained raised for >6 min (Also muscle relaxation pressure was raised during exercise. >20 mins to return to normal) Allen and Barnes" 1986 Exercise pressure >50 mm Hg anterior, >40 mm Hg deep posterior No difference in resting pressures Fronek et al" 1987 Resting pressure .10 mm Hg and/or .25 mm Hg 5 min

after exercise Rorabeck et al'2 1988 Pre-exercise pressure > 10 mm Hg and postexercise > 15 mm Hg for > 15 min Styfs3 1988 Relaxation pressure >35 mm Hg, resting pressure >30 mm Hg, postexercise return to normal >6 min Turnispeed et al" 1989 > 20 mm Hg at rest (postexercise increase and slow decline > 10 min) Pedowitz et alr 1990 Pre-exercise pressure .15 mm Hg, or postexercise

pressure .30 mm Hg at imin or .20 mm Hg at 5 min My guidelines Resting pressures (post 1st exercise bout) 1520mmHg + 1 min post exercise 30 - 35mmHg + Slow recovery patterns, 5 mins > 20 mmHg Fast recovery ?? Surgical success

COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 1 PATIENT IS SENT OUT TO EXERCISE TO ONSET OF SYMPTOMS COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES

STEP 2 PATIENT RESTS ON BED ultrasound identification of popliteal blood vessels Injection of local anaesthetic down to periosteum

COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 3 Insertion of split catheter Plastic cannula inside needle remains in Compartment as needle withdrawn,

Needle split and removed COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 4 Cannula is tested for flow and Secured in place to avoid

kinking COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 5 PATIENT IS EXERCISED SINGLE LEG HEEL RAISES TO FAILURE

COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 6 PATIENT LIES SUPINE, ANKLE SUPPORTED AT 90 DEGREES PRESSURES MEASURED AT 1, 3 AND 5 MINS

EXTRA MEASURES IF SLOW RECOVERY COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 7 ADDITIONAL COMPARTMENTS TESTED ANTERIOR/ LATERAL/ SUPERFICIAL

POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES STEP 8 COMPRESSION DRESSINGS APPLIED PATIENT INSTRUCTED RE

ACTIVITY OVER NEXT 48 HOURS AND DISCHARGED HOME WITH EMERGENCY CONTACT NUMBERS COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES FEET!

ESSENTIALLY SAME PROTOCOL COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES COMPRESSION DRESSINGS STILL IMPORTANT COMPARTMENT PRESSURE STUDIES IT IS USUAL TO BE SORE 48 HOURS

= DOMS COMPLICATIONS ARE RARE BRUISE/ LOCAL BLEEDING ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME =SEVERE WORSENING PAIN =EARLY SURGERY

Thanks for your attention

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