The ABCs of MLT: A Music Therapists Introduction to Music Learning Theory Kellee Coviak Hansen, MT-BC CODA Music Therapy Services, LLC (Lansing, MI) [email protected] Handouts available at: http://wp.me/P2c22o-5O My Background with MLT Michigan State University Double major: Music Therapy & Music Education
Dr. Cynthia Taggart Began teaching Early Childhood Music classes at CMS Certification by Gordon Institute for Music Learning Early Childhood Level 1 (2008) What is Music Learning Theory (MLT)? Music Learning Theory is an explanation of how we learn when we learn music. Based on an extensive body of research and practical field testing by Edwin E. Gordon and others, Music Learning Theory is a comprehensive
method for teaching audiation, Gordons term for the ability to think music in the mind with understanding. Music Learning Theory principles guide music teachers of all stripesearly childhood, elementary general, instrumental, vocal, the private studioin establishing sequential curricular goals in accord with their own teaching styles and beliefs. The primary objective is development of students tonal and rhythm audiation. Through audiation students are able to draw greater meaning from the music they listen to, perform, improvise, and compose. (GIML website) Why Music Learning within Music Therapy? Collaboration & consultation with music educators
Chronological age vs. developmental age Research-based Secondary benefit well-rounded, quality music experience Important MLT Concepts Children learn music like they learn language Exposure to a wide variety of tonalities and meters Music aptitude music achievement Audiation Importance of movement for musical development
Children learn music like they learn language: Language learning Infants absorb what they hear Vocalize sounds in imitation (babble) Develop ability to articulate sounds of native languge Adults model/provide informal guidance for forming words Successful imitation of words Children improvise their own phrases & sentences Learn to read & write words and sentences that they have heard and spoken Formal training in grammatical structure
Language learning Sequential development of four language vocabularies: Listening Speaking Reading Writing Language learning begins prenatally and continues into school years Types of Preparatory Audiation Acculturation Birth to age 2-4 Participates with little consciousness of the
environment Imitation Ages 2-4 to 3-5 Participates with conscious thought focused primarily on the environment Assimilation Ages 3-5 to 4-6 Participates with conscious thought focused primarily on the self Stages of Preparatory Audiation: Acculturation 1. Absorption
Hears and aurally collects the sounds of music in the environment 2. Random response Moves and babbles in response to, but without relation to, the sounds of music in the environment 3. Purposeful response Tries to relate movement and babble to the sounds of music in the environment Stages of Preparatory Audiation: Imitation 1. Shedding Egocentricity Recognizes that movement and babble do not
match the sounds of music in the environment 2. Breaking the Code Imitates with some precision the sounds of music in the environment, specifically tonal patterns and rhythm patterns Stages of Preparatory Audiation: Assimilation 1. Introspection Recognizes the lack of coordination between singing, chanting, breathing and movement 2. Coordination Coordinates singing and chanting with
breathing and movement Skill Learning Sequence: Discrimination Learning 1) Aural/Oral Listening and singing Neutral syllables 2) Verbal Association
Associate vocabulary/proper names with the patterns, functions, tonalities, and meters learned at aural/oral level Tonal and rhythm syllables introduced 3) Partial Synthesis Learn to give syntax to series of tonal or rhythm patterns. 4) Symbolic Association Learn to read and write music notation for previously learned patterns.
5) Composite Synthesis Read and write a series of tonal and rhythm patterns with the ability to identify the tonality or meter of the series. Skill Learning Sequence: Inference Learning 1) Generalization Three sublevels: aural/oral, verbal, and symbolic. Able to audiate unfamiliar patterns by comparing them to familiar patterns learned by rote. (e.g. same/different)
2) Creativity/Improvisation Creativity has fewer restrictions that improvisation. 3) Theoretical Understanding Music theory applied to music knowledge Whereas in discrimination learning a teacher teaches a student both what to learn and how to learn it, in inference learning a teacher teaches a student only how to learn. The student teaches himself what he learns. (GIML website)
Exposure to a wide variety of tonalities and meters Emphasize tonic-dominant relationship Songs tonality, chants meter Songs and chants without words Text diverts the childs attention from the music itself (Gordon, pg. 51) Repetition, repetition, repetition! Tonalities Major (1) Dorian (2) Phrygian (3) Lydian (4)
Mixolydian (5) Aeolian (6) Harmonic Minor (6) Melodic Minor (6) Locrian (7) Multitonal Handout MLT Workshop: Drunken Sailor Meter Duple
Triple Unusual Paired Unusual Unpaired Mixed Meter Handout Music aptitude music achievement Aptitude: measure of childrens potential to learn music Achievement: evidence by what children have learned relative to their aptitude Tonal aptitude and rhythm aptitude separate Purpose of measuring music aptitude is to help music teachers meet unique needs of
students, not to idenitify students for inclusion/exclusion in music activities. Developmental music aptitude until ~ age 9, stabilized music aptitude after age 9. Music Aptitude Tests (Developmental) Audie Game for 3-4 year olds Discriminate special song from music examples Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) K-Grade 3, including those with special needs Administered within groups or individually Consists of Tonal and Rhythm subtests
Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) More advanced version of PMMA, only difference is difficulty of questions Ages 6-9 and 10-11 (stabilized) Music Aptitude Tests (Stabilized) Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP) Designed to measure 7 dimensions of stabilized music aptitude Grades 4-12, administered individually or in groups Since it is a measure of stabilized aptitude, needs to be given only once throughout school career No formal music training required in order to receive a high score.
Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) High school students and college music & non-music majors Music Aptitude Tests Harmonic Improvisation Readiness Record (HIRR) Designed for all ages Purpose is to help objectively determine whether students have harmonic readiness to learn improvisation & adapt improvisation instruction Rhythm Improvisation Readiness Record (RIRR) Designed for all ages
Purpose is to help objectively determine whether students have ability to handle temporal relations Instrument Timbre Preference Test (ITPT) Grades 3-12 Purpose is to help students choose an instrument for beginning instrumental instruction. Iowa Tests of Music Literacy (ITML) Multi-level test designed to measure dimensions of music achievement Six subtests, classified into two divisions (Tonal Concepts & Rhythm Concepts) Audiation Ability to comprehend/think music, hear
silently Proof that audiation is occuring: demonstrate the ability to play/sing in another key. Example of student and Goodbye Song. Audiate resting tone Need resolution of unfinished phrase Importance of movement Provides readiness for understanding musical style Allows for expression in music performance MT: Social-emotional, communication domains Provides readiness for rhythm learning
through development of beat competency and physical coordination MT: Fine and gross motor development Develops rhythmic music aptitude Movement Body awareness MLT uses movement element continuums developed by Rudolf Laban (dance theorist) Flow: Free Bound Weight: Strong Gentle Space: Indirect Direct Time: Fast Slow
Locomotor & non-locomotor movement Simple circle dances Examples from Practice Secondary SCI student, nonverbal singing interval Instrument Mounts video Dancing [#7 Songs & Chants; Dorian, Duple] Sources for additional information GIML website: http://giml.org/ GIA Publications: http:// www.giamusic.com/bios/edwin-gordon Titles include: Music Play
Songs and Chants Without Words; More Songs and Chants Without Words Jump Right In Series Aptitude tests Research articles Resources Bolton, B. M., Taggart, C. C., Reynolds, A. M., Valerio, W. H., & Gordon, E. E. (2001). Jump right in: The music curriculum. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications. Gordon Institute for Music Learning. Available at http://giml.org. Gordon, E. E. (2003). A music learning theory for newborn and young children. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications.
Gordon, E. E., Bolton, B. M., Hicks, W. K., & Taggart, C. C. (1993). Experimental songs and chants. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications. Valerio, W. H., Reynolds, A. M., Bolton, B. M., Taggart, C. C., & Gordon, E. E. (1998). Music play: The early childhood music curriculum guide for parents, teachers, and caregivers. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc.
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