Overview of the U.S. Health System Larry Gamm,

Overview of the U.S. Health System Larry Gamm,

Overview of the U.S. Health System Larry Gamm, PhD, Texas A&M HSC Regents Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health Texas A&M University Health Science Center August 21, 2013 Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. U.S.-OECD nations cost comparisons Trends in U.S. Healthcare The Federal System in the America 3 sectors of production and guidance HSOs & Ownership Regulation & Evolving Markets Public health, healthcare, population health 2 Total health expenditure per capita* U.S. Gamm, 2013, OECD Health Data through 2010

*US$ purchasing power parity 3 Health Expenditures as Pct. of GDP U.S. Gamm, 2013, OECD Health Data through 2010 4 Cost, Quality, and Access: Healthcare in America American health care system is by far the most expensive in the world Access 18 percent uninsured

Quality Heath status indicators lower than most OECD countries Preventable deaths and injuries in health care facilities 5 Trends (1) Federal system (control trends historically) Private and state/local government Expanded role of national government 1960s ff 1965 Medicare and Medicaid (other dates) 2010 Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act Growing political uncertainty since 2010 Expansion of Health Research Expends 6

Trends (2) Excess hospital beds, shift to outpatient Too little primary care and prevention Growth of specialists/lack of primary care providers (PCPs) Maldistribution of doctors - geographics Growing power of medical schools, teaching hospitals, and non-doctors 7 Trends (3) Continued technology acquisition Hospital mergers Growth in regulation Increase in managed care

Growth in ambulatory & retail centers E-health and m-health (disruptive innov) 8 Spectrum of Health Services Delivery Level of Care Provider Group (examples) Preventive Well-baby clinic, family planning Primary

Physician office, outpatient dept, health center (FQHC), free clinic Secondary Hospital Inpatient care, surgery center Tertiary/quaternary Specialty hospital (sophisticated procedures) Restorative Rehabilitation, home health

Continuing Skilled Nursing facilities, assisted living, CCRCs [hospice] 9 Public Health System Civic Groups Schools EMS Neighborhood Organizations Nursing

Homes Non-Profit Organizations Home Health Hospitals Doctors CHCs Community Centers

Drug Treatment Public Health Agency Laboratories Mental Health Law Faith Institutions Enforcement Tribal Health Employers

Corrections Elected Officials Fire Transit Source (with modification): http://www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp/PresentationLinks.htm Why the complexity in the U.S. healthcare system? U.S. relies on a mix of conflicting strategies & units to pursue access, quality, and efficiency.

Increased government funding and regulation national and state Medicare and Medicaid (and PPACA elements) Continued reliance on market and competition The non-profit sector continues to play active role 11 Government and Market Complexity Levels of government Separation of powers at all levels Health care in the market provider, insurer, supplier industries Healthcare fit with market assumptions

12 Three sectors (examples) Generally there are three sectors of production and guidance in a society Private for profit (small & big business) Private non-profit (voluntary, charities, clubs) Government (taxing, program delivery, regulation) 13 Ownership of HSOs Hospitals Profit seeking (doctor or investor owned) Non-Profit

Voluntary charitable (MOST HOSPITALS) Government owned Veterans Administration Military Indian Health Services 14 Other mostly for-profit

Health Insurers Pharmaceutical companies Medical supply manufacturers Pharmacists Physicians and medical groups Nursing homes Renal dialysis clinics 15 Government regulation of HSOs State health regulation supported by U.S. Constitution Licensure of HSOs Licensure of health professionals Health Insurance benefits and reserves

Local environmental and public safety 16 Other Government Regulation Medicare requires accreditation (e.g., Joint Commission) of hospitals for payment. Federal and state governments vary in regulation across states planning, Certificate of Need, rate regulation Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) review and promote quality Anti-trust regulation, Corporate practice of Medicine Public health (state) but also national CDC/NIH 17

Medical Care . . . Public Health Medical care Health care Health service Outreach/extending the care continuum M-health, e-health Population health

Public health (prevention, promotion, policy) 18 Public Health (APHA - 2013) Public Health is Prevention. Public health is the practice of preventing disease and promoting good health within groups of people, from small communities to entire countries. Public Health is Policy Development and Population Health Surveillance. Public health professionals rely on policy and research strategies to understand issues such as infant mortality and chronic disease in particular populations 19

Population Health defined: Kindig and Stoddart (2003) propose that population health as a concept of health be defined as the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group. 20 Population health opportunity [M]any see attention to population health as a potent opportunity for health care delivery systems, public health agencies, community-based organizations, and many other entities to

work together to improve health outcomes in the communities they serve. (Stoto, 2013) (You can start at A&M!) 21 Public Health & Medical Care Community Health (Prev / Promote / Screen) Informal support Population/Patients Disease Management

(Care / Coordination / Prev) School-based Medical visit Employer-based Patient education Faith-based Hand - offs Community-based

Care follow-up L. Gamm 7-17-03 22 MHA & Population Health Epidemiology of disease (& disaster) Statistical analysis of interventions Demonstrating evidence-based practice Assessing, funding individual and community health interventions

Ensuring a safe environment for employees and patients 23 Remember! We are all in this together. No one will make it out of this world alive. You can make it better for now, and for all in the future. (No pressurebut lets get busy!) 24

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