Status and Problems of Conservation in Hawaii Zeenath

Status and Problems of Conservation in Hawaii Zeenath

Status and Problems of Conservation in Hawaii Zeenath Sheikh Environmental and Plant Biology Department Questions What is conservation and factors affecting it ? What is biological diversity and factors affecting and controlling it? What is biological diversity of Hawaii ?

Factors threatening biological diversity in Hawaii ? Role of Natural conservancy in conservation of Hawaii ? Techniques followed by Nature conservancy to achieve conservatio in Hawaii? What are the Problems arising in conservation in Hawaii? Questions contd Nature conservancy preserves in Hawaii? Endangered species in Hawaii?

What is the planning and protection methods followed in Hawaii to implement conservation ? Future plans of Nature conservancy for Hawaii? What is the conservation education undertaken in Hawaii ? Organizations helping in conservation in Hawaii? Conservation Maintaining biological diversity by applying the principles

of ecology, biogeography, population genetics, economics,sociology, anthropology, philosophy, and other theoretically based disciplines. (Meffe et al., 1997) Biological Diversity Biological diversity - or biodiversity - is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms (Muller 2003)

A simple measure of biological diversity is the number of species in a given area (Stone and Stone 1989). Biological Diversity contd.. Species checklist is the most common form of data for this kind of measurement (Stone and Stone 1989). The biodiversity we see today is the fruit of billions of years of evolution, shaped by natural processes and,

increasingly, by the influence of humans (Muller 2003) Factors Affecting Biological Diversity 1. Limiting Factors Water Nutrients Space 2. Physical Complexity

Land type(dry/wet, Island/ peninsula) Land elevation (high /low) Periodic disturbances 3. Biological Interactions Parasitism - Commensalism Mutualism (Stone and Stone 1989)

Factors Threatening Biological Diversity 1. Human overpopulation 2. Fragmentation of habitat

3. Invasion of alien plants and species 4. Nuclear war and nuclear winter 5.

Air pollution and climatic change (Stone and Stone 1989) Biological Diversity Of Hawaii 1. Plant Diversity 2. Animal Diversity 3. Landscape Diversity Uniqueness of Hawaii

Hawaii's Economy Depends on its Environment Potential New Discoveries in Medicine Hawaii's Culture is Linked to its Rich Natural Heritage Hawaii's Rich Agricultural Heritage Hawai`i is a Center for Scientific Study Factors Threatening Biological Diversity in Hawaii 1.

overpopulation 2. Agriculture 3. Invasion species

4. Pollution 5. Deforestation 6.

Illiteracy Invasive species of hawaii Invasive plants and animals Goats, deer, wild pigs and the weed miconia (represent the greatest threat to East Maui's forests) foreign insects, snakes, plants and pests. Feral pigs trample delicate nesting birds. Rosy wolfsnails gorge themselves on the island's native snails Miconia plants shade out native plants and hurt water quality.

Proposed danger Some 63 % of Hawaiis species are at risk of extinction, the highest proportion in the U.S., 217 species are already known to have been lost, the gravest total. Conservation in Hawaii Hawai`i has worked with its federal, state, and private

partners to protect more than 200,000 acres of Hawaii's natural areas that shelter native species, many of which are found nowhere else in the world. Natural conservancy The Nature Conservancy uses non-confrontational, market-based economic solutions to protect habitat: a win-win approach to conservation. Working only with willing sellers and donors, the Conservancy protects land through:

Gifts exchanges Conservation easements Management agreements Purchases from the Conservancy's revolving Land Preservation Fund Debt-for-nature swaps Management partnerships Nature Conservancy Preserves In Hawaii I.

Island of Hawai`i Kona Hema Preserve Kau Preserve II. III. Island of Maui East Maui Watershed Waikomoi Preserve

West Maui Mountains Watershed Kapunakea Preserve Island of Lana`i Kanepuu Preserve Lanai Forest and Watershed Partnership Nature Conservancy Preserves In Hawaii contd.. IV. Island of Moloka`i East MolokaI Watershed Pelekunu Preserve

Kamakou Preserve Moomomi Preserve V. Island of O`ahu Honouliuli Preserve ihjjhilauakea Preserve Koolau Mountains Watershed VI. Island of Kaua`i Kaluahonu Preserve Preserves In Hawaii

Island Of Hawaii Preserves Hawaii Preserves, Honouliuli, Island of Oahu Pristine native forest Kona Hema Preserve, Island of Hawaii 75% of all native species occupies

1.5 m acres of land , biggest Island Of Maui Preserves East Maui Watershed West Maui Mountains Watershed Biologically diverse and pristine in the islands Threatened by invasive species like insects and plant diseases

Waikomoi Preserve Has 63 rare plant species and 13 rare bird species (7 endangered) Kapunakea Preserve Has 24 species of rare plants, including four endangered species Has only known kauila tree of its kind on Maui

Island of Lana`I Preserves Kanepuu Preserve Has several patches of an old, extremely rare dryland forest still remain Gardenia Hawaiian

brighamii Represents one of the last remaining examples of a dry lowlands forest that once covered the main Hawaiian islands. Has guided hike paths Lanai Forest and Watershed Partnership Ensures the future supply of water for the island of Lana`i, Protect the health of near-shore waters, fisheries and beaches

Island of Moloka`i Preserves Moomomi Preserve Has rare coastal species than in any other single place in the main Hawaiian Islands. Has native beaches which has been lost to coastal development 22 native Hawaiian plant species (four globally rare or endangered)

East Molokai Watershed To protect high quality native Hawaiian rain forest communities Kamakou Preserve Has 250 species of Hawaiian plants - 219 of which can be found nowhere else in the world. Has countless native insects, supporting a unique array

of birds. Island of O`ahu Preserves Ihjjhilauakea Preserve Located in extinct crater on O'ahu's southeast end Contains rare Marsilea villosa fern, also known as 'ihi'ihi, Honouliuli Preserve

Has dark fertile lands that stretch from the waters of Pearl Harbor to the summit of the Wai`anae Mountains 70 rare and endangered plant and animal species Endangered Species Of Hawaii Animal species Hawaiin Hawk Hawaiin hoary bat Hawksbill Turtles

Plant Species Tetramolopium rockii Hawaiin Hawk Future Plans of Nature Conservancy Nature Conservancy to Protect Critical Nesting Beach for Endangered Hawksbill Turtles

The Nature Conservancy of Hawai`i has signed an agreement to purchase 24 acres of oceanfront property at Kamehame Beach on the Island of Hawai`i to help ensure the protection of the endangered Hawaiian hawksbill turtle. Conservation Education In Hawaii Teaching the importance of conservation in schools and colleges Starting voluntary organizations

Encouraging student participation in conservation programs. Educating target groups about conservation. Recognition of participation. Organisations Helping in Conservation in Hawaii

U.S. Forest Service Nature Conservancy

East Maui Watershed Partnership West Maui Mountains Watershed Partnership East Moloka`i Watershed Partnership Ko`olau Mountains Watershed Partnership Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species Maui Invasive Species Committee Big Island Invasive Species Committee O'ahu Invasive Species Committee Malama Hawai'I The Maui County Board of Water Supply

Organisations Helping in Conservation in Hawaii

Kamehameha Schools C. Brewer and Company Limited Amfac/JMB Hawaii, L.L.C. The Nature Conservancy of Hawai`i Maui Land & Pineapple Co., Inc.

State Department of Land and Natural Resources State Department of Land and Natural Resources County of Maui Board of Water Supply Haleakala Ranch Co. East Maui Irrigation Co., Ltd. Haleakala National Park Hana Ranch Organisations Helping in Conservation in Hawaii

Castle & Cooke Resorts LLC Hui Malama Pono O Lana`i Maui County Board of Water Supply U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service State of Hawai`i, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife The Nature Conservancy of Hawai'i USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Molokai-Lana`i Soil and Water Conservation District

Lana`i Water Advisory Committee State of Hawai`i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Commission on Water Resource Management Maui County References Meffe K.Gary, C.Ronald Carroll and contributors. Principles of Conservation Biology. 1997. Stone P.Charles, Danielle B.Stone. Conservation Biology in Hawaii.1989. Williamson, M. 1981. Island populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Muller WEG, Brummer F, Batel R, Muller IM, Schroder HC Molecular biodiversity. Case study: Porifera (sponges) Naturwissenschaften 90 (3): 103-120 MAR 2003

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