Spirituality in Higher Education: A National Study of

Spirituality in Higher Education: A National Study of

Spirituality in Higher Education: A National Study of College Students Search for Meaning and Purpose Higher Education Research Institute University of California, Los Angeles Funded By John Templeton Foundation What is Spirituality? Points to our interiors Is qualitative and affective Involves our values, beliefs, meaning, and purpose Has to do with our connectedness to others and the world around us Refers to those elements of our lives that are difficult to define or put into words (i.e., intuition, creativity, inspiration, and the sacred) Research Questions How many students are actively searching and curious about spiritual issues and questions such as the meaning of life and work? How do students view themselves in terms of spirituality

and related qualities such as compassion, forgiveness, optimism, and generosity? What spiritual/religious practices (e.g., rituals, prayer/meditation, service to others) are students most/least attracted to? Research Questions How do spiritual/religious practices affect students academic and personal development? What is the connection between traditional religious practices and spiritual development? What in the undergraduate experience facilitates or hinders students spiritual/religious quest? Spirituality in Higher Education Project Phases Pilot Administration to 3,600 Third-Year Students at 46 Institutions (Spring 2003) Interviews with 85 Second-, Third-, and Fourth-Year Students at 6 Institutions (Fall 2003) Full-Scale Administration to 112,000 First-Year Students at 236 Institutions (Fall 2004) HERI Faculty Survey Administration to 65,000 Teaching Faculty

at 511 Institutions (Fall 2004-Spring 2005) Beliefs Believe in God 79% My spiritual/religious beliefs have been formed through much personal reflection and searching Agree: 61% To be truly religious, a person must accept all the teachings of his/her faith Agree: 42% Interests and Activities I have at least some interest in spirituality 80% Discussed religion/spirituality at least occasionally: With friends 80% With family 76% In class 65%

Do you pray? (Yes) 69% Spiritual/Religious Beliefs % Indicating Agree Somewhat or Agree Strongly 80 75 70 69 67 63 65 60 55 50 Provide me with strength, support, and guidance Have helped me develop my Give meaning/purpose to my

identity life Feel Obligated to Follow My Parents Religious Practices 60 56 50 35 40 30 20 9 10 0 Not at all To some extent

To a great extent Spirituality Strengthening Experiences Death of close friend/family member Events of September 11, 2001 Romantic relationship Personal injury/illness New ideas encountered in classes War in Iraq Natural disaster Parents divorce/separation 45% 42% 36% 34% 31% 29% 24% 18%

Current Views about Religious/Spiritual Matters 50 42 40 30 20 10 23 10 15 15 Conflicted Not Interested

0 Doubting Seeking Secure Expectations about My Religious Beliefs 80 60 72 58 40 20 0 I do not expect my religious convictions to change in the There is at least "some" chance I will strengthen my religious next few years beliefs/convictions Scales

Spirituality =.88 Agree that we are all spiritual beings 69% Goal: Seeking out opportunities to help me grow spiritually Very important or Essential: Goal: Integrating spirituality into my life Very important or Essential: 41% 47% Religious Engagement =.87 Engages at least weekly in: Religious singing/chanting Reading sacred texts Other reading on religion/spirituality Frequently: Attended a religious service

Attended class/workshop/retreat on matters related to religion/spirituality 30% 27% 21% 42% 14% Religious Commitment =.93 My spiritual/religious beliefs provide me with strength, support, and guidance Agree: 69% I find religion to be personally helpful Agree: 68% I gain spiritual strength by trusting in Higher Power Agree: 65%

Religious/Social Conservatism =.72 Abortion should be legal Disagree: 48% People who dont believe in God will be punished Agree: 37% Conception of God: Father-figure Agree: 35% Religious Struggle =.75 Frequently: Struggled to understand evil, suffering, and death Felt distant from God

Questioned religious/spiritual beliefs Disagreed with family about religious matters Felt angry with God 15% 14% 14% 13% 7% Religious Skepticism =.83 Agree Strongly or Somewhat: I have never felt a sense of sacredness In the future, science will be able to explain everything The universe arose by chance Whether or not there is a Supreme Being doesnt matter to me 31%

31% 26% 26% Ecumenical Worldview Love is at the root of all the great religions: Agree: =.70 72% Most people can grow spiritually without being religious Agree: 64% I have an interest in different religious traditions To some or great extent: 61% Spiritual Quest =.85 Very Important or Essential Personal Goals:

Attaining wisdom Becoming a more loving person Improving the human condition Attaining inner harmony Finding answers to the mysteries of life Developing a meaningful philosophy of life 77% 67% 54% 49% 45% 42% Ethic of Caring =.79 Very Important or Essential goals: Helping others who are in difficulty 63%

Reducing pain and suffering in the world 55% Becoming a community leader 31% Charitable Involvement =.74 Frequently: Performed volunteer work 26% Donated money to charity 14% Participated in community food or clothing drives 11% Equanimity

=.76 Describes Me To a Great Extent: Being thankful for all that has happened to me Feeling good about the direction in which my life is headed Seeing each day, good or bad, as a gift 40% Feeling a strong connection to all humanity 52% 49% 16% Compassionate Self-Concept =.78 Self-rated Kindness Above average: 75%

Self-rated Generosity Above average: 67% Self-rated Forgiveness Above average: 56% Intended Major and Spirituality Spirituality by Intended Major (% high scorers) Highest Music Humanities Fine Arts 39 30 25

Computer Science Business Architecture 11 13 14 Lowest Religious Commitment by Intended Major (% high scorers) Highest Humanities Education Health Professions 32 28 28 Business

Undecided Engineering 18 19 19 Lowest Ecumenical Worldview by Intended Major (% high scorers) Highest Humanities Political Science Fine Arts 25 24 21 Lowest Agriculture Computer Science

Engineering 3 7 8 Spiritual Quest by Intended Major (% high scorers) Highest Humanities Fine Arts Music 38 36 35 Agriculture Computer Science Engineering 8 15

17 Lowest Equanimity by Intended Major (% high scorers) Highest Music Humanities Political Science 31 30 27 Computer Science Engineering Business 14 18 18

Lowest Race and Spirituality Spirituality by Race (% high scorers) Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native African American/Black White/Caucasian Latino Asian American/Asian 25 24 24 17 17 14 Religious Commitment by Race (% high scorers)

African American/Black American Indian/Alaska Native Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander White/Caucasian Latino Asian American/Asian 47 32 29 25 23 22 Ecumenical Worldview by Race (% high scorers) Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native Latino Asian American/Asian African American/Black

White/Caucasian 24 19 18 18 16 12 Spiritual Quest by Race (% high scorers) African American/Black American Indian/Alaska Native Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Latino Asian American/Asian White/Caucasian 36 34 34 28

27 23 Equanimity by Race (% high scorers) African American/Black Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native Latino White/Caucasian Asian American/Asian 33 28 27 23 22 19 Gender and Spirituality Gender Differences on Factors

% High Scorers 45 Women Men 31 30 28 30 27 21 25 22 19 22 20 16

15 10 0 Compassionate SelfConcept Religious Commitment Spiritual Quest Equanimity Religious Engagement Charitable Involvement Gender Differences on Factors % High Scorers

45 Women Men 30 19 15 15 21 18 13 16 14 10 14 13

11 10 0 Spirituality Religious/Social Conservatism Ecumenical Worldview Religious Skepticism Ethic of Caring Religious Struggle Preliminary findings on gender differences in spirituality We explored gender differences in spirituality using two survey items included in our longitudinal pilot

data: The value students placed on integrating spirituality into my life Students self-rated spirituality We identified the variables that predicted changes in these items during college for women compared to men. Preliminary findings on gender differences in spirituality College experiences that impact mens and womens spirituality similarly Discussions on spirituality/religion with friends or in class (+) Charitable Involvement (+) Preliminary findings on gender differences in spirituality College experiences that impact mens and womens spirituality differently Hours per week spent studying/doing homework (- for men)

Majoring in one of the science disciplines (- for men) Preliminary findings on gender differences in spirituality College experiences that impact mens and womens spirituality differently Having many close friends who are religious (+ for both genders, but stronger for women) Preliminary findings on gender differences in spirituality The spiritual differences we observe are not necessarily innate gendered qualities, but are influenced by contextual factors and student experiences in the college environment. Spirituality, Religion, and Political Orientation Percentages of High Scorers on Each of Eight Scales Who Are Conservative and Liberal

50 47 45 39 40 48 Conservative Liberal 45 43 34 35 29

30 30 27 27 24 25 25 22 20 15 15 15 14

10 5 0 Religious Engagement S pirituality Charitable Involvement Compassionate S elf-Concept S piritual Quest Ethic of Caring Ecumenical Worldview

Religious S kepticism Political and Social Issues 80 77 76 67 70 60 50 High Religious Engagement Low Religious Engagement 49 40 30

28 23 19 15 20 10 0 Support legalized abortion Believe casual sex is okay Support same-sex marriage Support legalizing marijuana

High vs. Low Religious Engagement Diverging Perspectives On: Legalized abortion Casual sex Same-sex marriage Legalization of marijuana Political and Social Issues 80 75 78 High Religious Engagement 70 60 51

55 40 25 20 55 Low Religious Engagement 50 30 61 21 23

18 10 0 Support gun control Support abolishing Believe racial Believe women's Believe there is affirmative action discrimination is roles best at home too much concern in college no longer a major for criminals' admissions problem rights High vs. Low Religious Engagement Converging Perspectives On: Issues of race

Rights of criminals Womens roles Gun control Percent agreeing that The death penalty should be abolished 45 40 35 30 42 36 30 26 25 20 15 10 5 0 High

Low Religious Religious Engagement Engagement High Spirituality Low Spirituality Religious Differences Spirituality by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 60 56 50 40 36

30 30 27 27 22 20 20 20 20 Methodist UCC Quaker

10 0 Mormon 7th Day Adventist Other Christian Baptist Unitarian Presbyterian Spirituality by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 60 50 40 30 20

19 19 17 15 14 14 13 12 10 9 5 0

Buddhist Episcopalian Church of Christ Lutheran Catholic Islamic Eastern Orthodox Hindu Jewish None Self-description: Have an interest in

spirituality, to a great extent Highest on Spirituality Mormon 7th Day Adventist Other Christian Lowest on Spirituality No religious preference Jewish Hindu 66 52 52 10 17 23 Religious Engagement by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 70 60 58

50 50 40 40 39 30 30 24 23 22 20 Islamic

Methodist Church of Christ UCC 20 10 0 Mormon 7th Day Adventist Other Christian Baptist Presbyterian Religious Engagement

by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 70 60 50 40 30 20 18 17 16 16 14 12 10 7

6 Jewish Buddhist 3 1 Unitarian None 0 Lutheran Episcopalian Quaker Hindu

Catholic Eastern Orthodox Attended religious services frequently Highest on Religious Engagement Mormon 7th Day Adventist Other Christian Lowest on Religious Engagement No religious preference Unitarian Buddhist 78 76 61 4 24 10

Religious/Social Conservatism by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 45 40 39 37 36 35 30 23 25 23 21 20

20 19 15 15 10 5 0 Baptist Mormon Other Christian Presbyterian Islamic 7th Day Adventist

Church of Christ Methodist Lutheran Religious/Social Conservatism by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 14 11

10 5 9 8 5 1 1 1 0 0 None Jewish Hindu

Buddhist Unitarian 0 Quaker UCC Catholic Episcopalian Eastern Orthodox Agree strongly that abortion should be legal Highest on Religious/Social Conservatism Baptist 13

Mormon 11 Other Christian 14 Lowest on Religious/Social Conservatism Unitarian 67 Buddhist 34 Hindu 28 Religious Skepticism by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 60 54 50 45

40 35 33 30 24 20 20 15 10 14 10 0 None

Unitarian Jewish Buddhist Quaker Hindu Eastern Episcopalian Methodist Orthodox Religious Skepticism by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 60 50 40 30 20 10

10 9 9 8 7 6 6 5 4 2 Islamic

Other Christian Baptist Mormon 0 Catholic Church of Christ Lutheran UCC Presbyterian 7th Day Adventist Religion and science conflict; I am on the side of science Highest on Religious Skepticism

None Unitarian Jewish Lowest on Religious Skepticism Mormon Baptist Other Christian 42 29 22 0 3 4 Ecumenical Worldview by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 45 44 40 35

30 30 27 25 21 20 20 20 19 19 Quaker

Episcopalian Islamic Jewish Eastern Orthodox Mormon 20 15 10 5 0 Unitarian Hindu Buddhist Ecumenical Worldview

by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 16 15 14 13 12 11

11 10 9 9 UCC Other Christian Methodist Lutheran Baptist Church of Christ 5

0 7th Day Adventist None Catholic Presbyterian Agree strongly that people can grow spiritually without being religious Highest on Ecumenical Worldview Unitarian Hindu Buddhist Lowest on Ecumenical Worldview Church of Christ Baptist Lutheran 55 25 35 14

11 14 Ethic of Caring by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 35 30 30 26 25 23 21 18 20 16 16

16 Episcopalian Quaker Mormon 15 14 14 Baptist Eastern Orthodox 10 5 0

Unitarian Islamic Buddhist Hindu Jewish Ethic of Caring by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 35 30 25 20 15 14 14 13

13 12 12 Catholic Other Christian 11 10 10 Presbyterian Methodist Lutheran

10 5 0 7th Day Adventist Church of Christ UCC None Engaged in trying to change unfair things in the world to a great extent Highest on Ethic of Caring Unitarian Islamic Buddhist Lowest on Ethic of Caring Lutheran Methodist

Presbyterian 26 21 19 10 12 11 Religious Differences Two religious clusters: Spiritual, religious, and conservative Skeptical, pluralistic, and justiceoriented Compassionate Self-Concept by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 45 41 40 40

36 35 35 34 34 Eastern Orthodox Quaker 33 33 33 33

Episcopalian Other Christian Church of Christ Jewish 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Islamic Hindu Unitarian

7th Day Adventist Compassionate Self-Concept by Religious Preference (% high scorers) 45 40 35 33 32 32 32 30 30 30

29 26 25 24 20 15 10 5 0 Mormon UCC Baptist Buddhist Presbyterian Catholic Methodist

Lutheran None Students Spiritual Diversity Spiritual perspectives and experiences vary widely and are associated with a range of student characteristics. While these characteristics distinguish students, there are also important points of convergence. As we serve students and study their experiences in college, we must remain mindful of how these multifaceted identity markers interact with their spirituality. Spirituality and Higher Education Expectations for My College % Indicating Very Important or Essential 80 70

69 67 63 60 48 50 40 30 20 10 0 Enhances my selfunderstanding Helps develop my personal values Provides for my emotional

development Encourages personal expression of spirituality Professors Provided % Indicating Frequently and Not at all 70 62 56 60 50 40 30 20 10 8 8

0 Encouragement to discuss religious/spiritual matters Opportunities to discuss the purpose/meaning of life Frequently Not at all Faculty Spirituality Consider myself a spiritual person (%to a great extent) 48 Integrating spirituality in my life (%very important or essential) 47 Seek out opportunities to grow spiritually (%to a great extent)

32 Faculty Spirituality Factor =.88 Self Descriptions: Consider myself a spiritual person Seek out opportunities to grow spiritually Personal Goal: Integrate spirituality in my life Highly Spiritual and Religious 80 70 70 60 50 40 30 18

20 13 10 0 "To a Great Extent" "To Some Extent" "Not at All" General Work Values (% essential) Spirituality High Low Diff Be a good teacher 81 62 -19 Be a role model to students 62 30 -32

Be a good colleague 58 35 -23 Student Personal Development Focus (% very important or essential) Develop moral character Enhance self understanding Help develop personal values Provide for emotional dev. Facilitate meaning/purpose search Enhance spiritual development Spirituality High Low 76 32 71 41 68 29 52

16 54 16 44 1 Diff -44 -30 -39 -36 -38 -43 Civic Minded Values (% very important or essential) Spirituality High Low Diff Goals for Undergraduates Prepare for responsible citizenship Instill commitment to community service 70

51 45 18 -25 -33 Personal Objectives Influence social values Influence the political structure 49 21 24 16 -25 -5 Civic Minded Practice (% yes in past two years)

Spirituality High Low Diff Used my scholarship to address local community needs 56 31 -25 Collaborated with the local community in research/ teaching -15 46 31 Colleges Should be Concerned with Students Spiritual Development (% agree) Other Religious Colleges

69 Catholic Colleges 62 Private Nonsectarian Colleges Private Universities 37 Two Year Colleges 29 Public Colleges 23 Public Universities 18 39 Spirituality of Faculty Has No Place in the Academy (% disagree) Other Religious Colleges 78 Catholic Colleges 71 Private Nonsectarian Colleges Two Year Colleges

Private Universities 58 Public Colleges 53 Public Universities 49 61 59 Next Steps National Institute on Integrating Spirituality into the Campus Curriculum and Co-Curriculum (Fall 2007) Longitudinal Follow Up of the 2004 Entering Freshmen Cohort (Spring 2007) Second CIRP/CSBV Administration to Entering Freshmen (Fall 2008) For more information: www.spirituality.ucla.edu

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Personal, Social & Emotional Development Understanding the World

    Personal, Social & Emotional Development Understanding the World

    Are all minibeasts scary? What & Why does the hungry caterpillar eat? Jasper's Beanstalk, Mad about minibeasts! Superworm! The very hungry caterpillar, Caterpillar to butterfly, What the Ladybird Heard, The bad tempered ladybird, The very busy spider, First fabulous facts...
  • Welcome to the 2017 IRI Ops & Tech

    Welcome to the 2017 IRI Ops & Tech

    How do we start applying E+R=O in our lives, we begin by making sure we are in The R Factor mindset. The R Factor mindset recognizes that I do not control events, I don control how I choose to respond,...
  • Big Data Driven Innovation and Next Generation AI

    Big Data Driven Innovation and Next Generation AI

    Subscribe to National and Global Sources and Act on Relevant Information. Learning. Learn by Watching. Learn by being taught. Learn by doing. Learn by asking others. Learn by discovery. Security. Multimodal authentication. Continuous authentication. Encryption. Big Data Management. Process, index,...
  • Improving Young Workers' Safety and Health

    Improving Young Workers' Safety and Health

    The [email protected] Congress brought together 125 young workers, employers, unionists and students, to create a global network of young OSH champions. Young people were invited to share their opinions about the obstacles to safety and health that young workers face...
  • Seasonal flu vaccination programme for children: 2017/18 An

    Seasonal flu vaccination programme for children: 2017/18 An

    Seasonal flu vaccination programme for children: 2017/18. An update for registered healthcare practitioners . January 2018. Background. Following a recommendation in 2012 by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) 1 that the seasonal flu programme should be extended...
  • Voucher System - Pearson Education

    Voucher System - Pearson Education

    Arial Gill Sans MT Wingdings 2 Verdana Wingdings Solstice 1_Solstice 2_Solstice 3_Solstice 4_Solstice 5_Solstice 6_Solstice 7_Solstice 8_Solstice 9_Solstice 10_Solstice 11_Solstice 12_Solstice Microsoft Office Excel 97-2003 Worksheet Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet Slide 1 Learning Objective 1 Voucher Voucher System Learning Objective...
  • Ship control and classification - folk.uio.no

    Ship control and classification - folk.uio.no

    Ship control and classification. Professor Erik Røsæg. Nordisk institutt for sjørett. [email protected] folk.uio.no/erikro
  • Powerpoint Document Title Document ... - Department of Defence

    Powerpoint Document Title Document ... - Department of Defence

    Is this project/program likely to pursue innovative designs, infrastructure, plant & equipment or construction techniques? Is this approach being taken over a proven, compliant or generic design without reason - attracting additional costs? ... (this includes integration with Defence and...