The Condition of Career Pathway Readiness in the

The Condition of Career Pathway Readiness in the

The Condition of Career Pathway Readiness in the United States 2019: Preview Mary LeFebvre, Principal Research Scientist, State & Federal Policy Jeffrey Steedle, Director, Assessment Transformation Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Labor Market Trends Supply Aging population and slow growth Decreased labor force participation (especially for the low-skilled population)

Increased diversity (fertility and immigration) Demand Increased automation Alternative staffing arrangements Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT How Has Policy Reacted? College readiness for all Enrollment has increased but completion has not High quality CTE Perkins V Industry recognized credentials (WIOA)

Local industry skills alignment A few national models, most are homegrown Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT A Better Approach to Career Readiness Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT ACT Readiness Framework The Framework encompasses the

different types and levels of readiness needed for success in both college and career. The levels of readiness in the Framework go from general to specific, which allow for differentiation of purpose or uses by policy makers, educators, and individuals. Source: https://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documen ts/Ready-for-What-May-2018.pdfJoin the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Career Clusters and Pathways Career clusters groupings of occupations

used by education/training providers to develop coursework, programs of study, and career navigation tools for students in secondary and postsecondary education Career pathways - an integrated collection of workforce programs and services intended to develop individuals core academic, technical, and employability

skills; provide them with continuous education, training; and place them in high-demand, highopportunity jobs Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Using Career Clusters to Understand Skill Needs Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT National Sample Description

Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT National Sample Approximately 850,000 individuals who took the refreshed WorkKeys Assessments (Applied Math, Workplace Documents, or Graphic Literacy) between June 2017 and July 2019. For re-testers, the highest scores were retained. Age at time of testing and self-reported current status, highest degree, and education level were used to determine education groups (high school, low, middle, or high).

Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT National Sample 47% Female, 53% Male 56% 23% 10% 1% 2% 0%

4% Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT 4% National Sample Current Status (65% reporting) 27% Currently unemployed Current or recent (12 month) active duty military 0%

Current adult education participant or recent (12 months) GED completer 3% Current college (technical, community, or four-year) student or recent (12 months) graduate 3% 48% Current high school junior, senior, or recent (12 months) graduate Currently employed local, state, or federal government Currently employed private or nonprofit

7% 12% Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT National Sample 76% 10% < 20 20-29 6%

4% 3% 30-39 40-49 50+ Age Group Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT

National Sample 71% Low Education: Less than High School, High School Diploma or Equivalent, Some College, No Degree Middle Education: Associates Degree, Postsecondary NonDegree Award High 20% Education: Bachelor's Degree, Masters Degree, Doctoral or Professional Degree 6% 2% Education Group

Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT WorkKeys Level Score and NCRC Distributions Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT WorkKeys Level Scores Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT NCRC Levels

Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT NCRC by Education Group Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT NCRC by Race/Ethnicity Race/Ethnicity African American American Indian Asian Hispanic Pacific Islander

White NonQualifier 17% 15% 8% 12% 20% 6% Bronze 38% 33% 22%

31% 36% 19% Silver 32% 32% 29% 34% 27% 33% Gold 10%

14% 19% 16% 12% 24% Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Platinum 3% 6% 22% 7% 5%

18% NCRC by Gender On average, males performed slightly higher on Applied Math. Females performed slightly higher on Workplace Documents. Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Cumulative Percentage of US Jobs for Which an Examinee Is Qualified Based on WorkKeys Skill Level 3 4

5 6 7 Applied Math 50% 84% 96% 99% 100% Workplace Documents

26% 74% 91% 97% 100% Graphic Literacy 21% 83% 96% 98% 100%

Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT US Mean Wages by Level Score Skill Level 3 4 5 6 7 Applied Math $33,586

$56,840 $91,371 $127,573 $111,235 Workplace Documents $28,953 $46,294 $81,872 $75,063 $121,481 Graphic

Literacy $28,418 $49,047 $86,147 $91,565 $139,132 Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Career Pathway Readiness Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT

16 Career Clusters O*NET and National Career Clusters Framework US BLS Occupational Employment and Wages (May 2018), Employment Projections (20162026) ACT JobPro database Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT 16 Career Clusters (cont.)

Top Jobs List Fastest growing, highest wages, most openings 5 occupations in each education group Career Pathway Benchmarks Set at 85th percentile rank for occupations within each education group Represents minimum skill demand for most occupations within the education group Career Pathway Gap Analysis Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT

Manufacturing Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Manufacturing Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Manufacturing Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Manufacturing Pathway Benchmarks

Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Manufacturing Gap Analysis Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Policies and Practices to Increase Career Readiness Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Use Career Readiness and Career Pathway

Benchmarks to Set Goals for Students and Programs Guide workforce development efforts by setting local career pathway benchmarks. Use the local benchmarks to: examine workforce skill gaps, evaluate student readiness for success in education and training programs, support career exploration and counseling, and align education and training programs with the knowledge and skills demanded by local industries. Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT

Value College Readiness and Career Readiness Equally College readiness and career readiness have traditionally been treated as separate constructs, but most states have a unified definition of College and Career Readiness (Mishkind, 2014). Current policies focus on ensuring that students are choice ready for a variety of postsecondary pathways. Contemporary middle-skills jobs require greater proficiency with traditional academic skills. CTE programs now focus more on academic skills (Levesque et al., 1995), and CTE students now study core academic subjects at greater levels of rigor (Levesque et al., 2008). A recent ACT study (Steedle, Radunzel, & Mattern, 2019) examined readiness benchmarks on the ACT for 2-year students pursuing studies associated with middle-skills and high-skills occupations and compared

results with the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks for the general collegegoing population (2-year and 4-year). Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Value College Readiness and Career Readiness Equally https://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/R1739-re adiness-any-degree-2019-03.pdf Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Value College Readiness and Career Readiness Equally

Schools, districts, and states should provide all students with the opportunity to benefit from college preparatory coursework and CTE programs. Breaking the pattern of income and opportunity inequality in the US is inextricably linked to providing individuals of all ages with the knowledge and skills needed to successfully navigate career and education transitions throughout their lifetimes. Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Encourage Career Awareness and Advisement Activities Earlier in a Students Educational Pathway

School- and institution-based counselors should be provided with professional development opportunities focused on promoting career readiness to ensure that they are able to provide relevant and timely information for students Students need greater exposure to CTE courses earlier on in order to capitalize on this important moment in their educational pathway. State CTE policy should ensure that middle school students have the opportunity to enroll in introductory or exploratory CTE courses that seek to familiarize students with potential CTE pathways Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Offer Authentic Work-Based Learning Experiences and Training State education agencies must ensure integration, at appropriate stages

of student career pathway readiness, of authentic work-based experiences. Incorporating job shadowing, internships, and apprenticeships into state education policiesoften through partnerships between educators and employersgives students an opportunity to experiment with various career paths. Work-based learning experiences can act as a connection point to apprenticeship programs, which offer further intensive on-the-job training and relevant technical instruction. Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Recognize the Importance of Foundational and Nonacademic Behaviors Along with

Academic and Technical Skills Major drivers of economic change and upheaval in the labor market have increasingly required students to learn new, transferable foundational skills in addition to traditional academic and technical competencies. These skills are foundational in that they are both fundamental, because they are the foundation toward more advanced skill development, and portable, because they are commonly recognized by employers nationwide and across a wide variety of occupations. Acknowledging and incorporating these characteristics into determinations of readiness is essential to improving equity. Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT Resources Occupational Profile Data: http://profiles.keytrain.com/

O*NET: https://www.onetonline.org/ US BLS Data: https://www.bls.gov/oes/ and https://www.bls.gov/emp/ Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT References Holzer, H. (2019). The US labor market in 2050: Supply, demand and policies to improve outcomes. Bonn, Germany: IZA Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved from https:// www.iza.org/en/publications/pp/148/the-us-labor-market-in-2050-supply-demand-and-policies-to-improve-outcomes LeFebvre, M., & Mattern, K. (2018). Ready for what? Development of a hierarchical framework linking college readiness and career readiness. Iowa City, IA: ACT. Retrieved from https:// www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/Ready-for-What-May-2018.pdf Levesque, K., Premo, M., Vergun, R., Emanual, D., Klein, S., Henke, R., . . . Houser, J. (1995). Vocational education in the United States: The early 1990s. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://

nces.ed.gov/pubs95/95024.pdf Levesque, K., Laird, J., Hensley, E., Choy, S. P., Cataldi, E. F., & Hudson, L. (2008). Career and technical education in the United States: 1990 to 2005. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https:// nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008035.pdf Mishkind, A. (2014). Overview: State definitions of college and career readiness. Washington, DC: College & Career Readiness & Success Center at American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http:// www.ccrscenter.org/sites/default/files/CCRS%20Defintions%20Brief_REV_1.pdf Steedle, J. T., Radunzel, J., & Mattern, K. D. (2019). Comparing academic readiness requirements for different postsecondary pathways: What admissions tests tell us. Journal of Educational Measurement, 56(2), 331360. https:// onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jedm.12211 Join the conversation using #ACTWorkforce @ACT

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