LINGUISTIC VARIABLES Types of variables Lexical - vocabulary

LINGUISTIC VARIABLES Types of variables  Lexical - vocabulary

LINGUISTIC VARIABLES Types of variables Lexical - vocabulary Grammatical Phonological - pronunciation

Types of variables Lexical - vocabulary This and the following maps are from Widdowson and Upton

Isoglosses showing lexical variables Isoglosses

showing lexical variables Isoglosses showing lexical

variables Isoglosses showing lexical variables

Isoglosses showing lexical variables Isoglosses showing

lexical variables Isoglosses showing lexical variables

Isoglosses showing lexical variables Isoglosses

showing lexical variables Isoglosses showing lexical

variables Types of variables Lexical - vocabulary Grammatical LINGUISTIC VARIABLES

Grammatical variables

Im not stupid I aint stupid So I said to him ... So I says to him ... I dont want any more trouble I dont want no more trouble

LINGUISTIC VARIABLES Grammatical variables

I saw/seed her yesterday I did/done it We were/was all there

She is /Er be the love of my life The lady who/which/what/as rang the police He looks after himself/hisself You/you all/yous got to believe me Isoglosses showing

grammatical variables Isoglosses showing grammatical variables

Isoglosses showing grammatical variables Isoglosses

showing grammatical variables Isoglosses showing grammatical

variables Isoglosses showing grammatical variables

Types of variables Lexical - vocabulary Grammatical Phonological - pronunciation LINGUISTIC VARIABLES

Phonological variables Rhoticity fAm0 - fArm0r FOOT-STRUT brSwud bruSwud Split BATH-TRAP

gsmAsk gasmask Split put j0 bUts on FOOT-GOOSE pt j0r bts n Merger ai laik peintiX

Diphthong Shift oi loik paintiX STRUT/FOOT BATH/TRAP Phonological variables

To begin our survey of the British Isles we shall look at 9 variables : 10. Diphthong Shift These 9 variables form the backbone of To

begin our survey of the British Isles

we our study of accents in the British Isles. shall look at 9 variables The following slides give a quick overview of the content of these variables. Refer to the variables page for further details; and to the series of slides on

Processes (5th week onwards) Words which have the same vowel in the North of England, but different vowels everywhere else (incl Scotland, N. America, and Australasia) foot, good, butcher, look, could, should, bush mud, blood, crutch, fudge, country, brush, sun,

son, ton, some, other, mother, brother, come Words which have different vowels in the South of England, but the same vowel in most other places bath path dance half last pass past craft mast grass laugh grant (NOT palm, father, start)

maths, gas, pant, have, lass, mass, trap, ass, pan, standard, passage, smash The unstressed ending spelt -y, -ie, -ey etc., and the unstressed KIT vowel when another vowel follows city, party lady, series, parley, Charlie, Disney;

create, react, reality, re-open, abbreviate Whether r is pronounced in words such as farmer, sure, beggar, partake, burn, stir, form, star, argue (NOT: carry, story, parallel, run, cry, etc.)

Words which usually have different vowels, but have the same vowel in Scotland and Northern Ireland: foot bush wood - food goose mood naught caught brought talk - not cot rotten rock Stressed (content) words beginning with /h/ in RP,

Scottish,North American and Autralasian English, but lose the /h/ in most places in England: happy hurry hunt Hampshire Herbert Hannah Glottalization: adding a glottal stop in words like that, map, mattress, factual Glottaling; using the glottal stop intead of t:

that, not, Peter, bottle Words spelt with ng, pronounced in the W. Midlands of England, but everywhere else: stro ng, sing, running, singing, singer (NOT: anger, finger, hungry)

Words which may or may not have /j/ before the vowel: few new crude union 10. Diphthong Shift This is a complicated variable which we will

discuss more closely later, but you will hear it immediately in the S. of England and in Aus-NZSAfr. We'll simplify it here: FACEPRICECHOICE MOUTHGOAT paint pint point house home

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