tI s Not Your Parents Solar System! Dr.

tI s Not Your Parents Solar System!  Dr.

tI s Not Your Parents Solar System!

Dr. Frank Summers Space Telescope Science Institute July 11, 2013

Your Ancient Ancestors Solar System Earth

Moon Mercury Venus Sun

Mars Jupiter Saturn

Claudius Ptolemy 150 Almagest Misconception

Ptolemy invented the Earth-centered solar system. Misconception

Ptolemy invented the Earth-centered solar system. Ptolemy organized and systematized the Earth-centered solar system based

on ideas that had been developed over about 600 years. Your Parents Solar System

Nicholas Copernicus 1543 On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres

Misconception Copernicus delayed publishing because he feared criticism from religious leaders.

Misconception Copernicus delayed publishing because he feared criticism from religious

leaders. Copernicus delayed publishing (in part) because he feared criticism from scientists.

Earth Moon Mercury

Venus Sun Mars Jupiter

Saturn Sun Mercury

Venus Earth / Moon Mars Jupiter

Saturn Misconception Copernicus Sun-centered solar system

was quickly accepted because it was much simpler and more accurate. Misconception

Copernicus Sun-centered solar system was quickly accepted because it was much simpler and more accurate. Copernicus Sun-centered solar system

was just as complex as Ptolemys Earth-centered solar system, and provided no more accuracy in its predictions.

Galileo 1609 Use of telescope for

astronomy 1632 Trial by the Inquisiton

Misconception Galileo invented the telescope and was the first to use it for astronomy.

Misconception Galileo invented the telescope and was the first to use it for astronomy. Galileo was one of several folks who

improved the spyglass so that it could be used for astronomy. Misconception

Galileo proved that Copernicus Suncentered solar system was correct. Misconception Galileo proved that Copernicus Suncentered solar system was correct.

Galileo tried to prove Copernicus Suncentered solar system, but his arguments were wrong. Tycho Brahe

Johannes Kepler 1546-1601

1571-1630 Misconception

Astronomers embraced the Suncentered solar system because it is philosophically simpler. Misconception

Astronomers embraced the Suncentered solar system because it is philosophically simpler. Astronomers embraced the Suncentered solar system only when it could provide better predictions.

Isaac Newton 1687 Principia

William Herschel 1781 Discovery of Uranus 1801 Planet Ceres

(Piazzi) 1801 Planet Ceres (Piazzi)

1802 Planet Pallas (Olbers) 1804 Planet Juno (Harding)

1807 Planet Vesta (Olbers) 1845 Planet Astraea (Hencke)

Urbain Le Verrier & John Couch Adams 1846 Prediction and discovery of Neptune

Rocky Planets Giant Planets

Misconception You cant just demote a planet! Misconception

You cant just demote a planet! In the mid-1800s, astronomers demoted the many planets between

Mars and Jupiter to be asteroids. Clyde Tombaugh 1930 Discovery of Pluto

Misconception Plutos discovery relied on mathematical predictions based on perturbations in

Neptunes orbit. Misconception Plutos discovery relied on mathematical

predictions based on perturbations in Neptunes orbit. Plutos discovery relied solely on the incredible observing skill and dedication

of Clyde Tombaugh. Neptunes orbit shows none of the claimed perturbations.

Your Parents Solar System Your Parents Solar System

Your Parents Solar System Mercury My

Venus Very Earth Energetic

Mars Mother Jupiter Just

Saturn Served Uranus Us

Neptune Nine Pluto Pizzas

Facts Are Not Knowledge

Memorization, not understanding Factoids Highlights differences Little or no relevance

Little or no big picture Comparative Planetology

An Improvement Compare and contrast Discuss broad ideas Apply to planets, moons, etc., as a group

Highlight similarities Appearance Characteristics

Events April 1997

September 1997 Planetary Comparisons Canyons Grand Canyon, Mariner Valley

Volcanoes Mount St. Helens, Olympus Mons, Io Craters Earth, Moon, Mercury, Storms, Winds, Seasons, Weather, Ice

Floes, Magnetic Fields, Moons, Rings, etc Comparative Planetology Messages

What happens on Earth happens elsewhere Solar system is understandable

Pieces to assemble the big picture The 21st Century Solar System Sun

Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt Giant

Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud

Families of the Solar System Classes of similar objects Size Composition

Orbit size Orbit shape Orbit inclination Moons

Rings Hollywoods View of the Asteroid Belt

Hundreds of thousands of asteroids about a million

miles apart! 960 million miles

Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt Sizes of the Giant Planets and Earth

Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud Billions of icy minor

planets comet nuclei Roughly spherical out to 50,000 AU Predicted by Jan Oort

Explains long-period comets Figure 1a: Comet Semimajor Axis Distribution

600 Orbital Period:

7 years

200 years 400

Long Period Short Period

300 200 100

1 / a (1/AU) 0.390

0.185 0.088

0.042 0.020

0.009 0.004

0.002 0.000

-0.002 0 -0.004

Number of Comets 500

Families of the Solar System Classification Structure of the solar system

Similar objects lie in similar regions Clues to solar system formation and evolution

Sun Rocky Planets

Asteroid Belt Giant Planets Kuiper Belt

Oort Cloud Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars

Asteroid Belt Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud

Some May View Elaborate Mnemonics As Boring,

Just Some Useless Nonsensical Knowledge, But Others Cheer

Science May View Established Models As Basic Justified Standards Until New

Knowledge Bears Out Changes Sometimes

My Very Energetic Mother Also Boils Jumbo Shrimp Using Nine Kettles Bubbling

Over Coals The Inevitable Question

Why is Pluto No Longer a Planet? Planet Pluto

January 1930

23, January 29, 1930

Pluto/Charon 1978 James Christy (USNO)

The Incredible Shrinking Planet

Lowells Planet X 7 times Earth 1940s 1 times Earth

1980 0.1 times Earth 1985 0.002 times Earth Kuiper Belt Objects

1992 Jewitt & Luu find QB1 Distance of 42 AU First (third?) object

discovered in the Kuiper Belt Kuiper Belt

But Isnt Pluto Special in Some Way?

Orbit Comparison: Pluto/Charon vs 2004 DW Kuiper Belt

Moon Makemake

Haumea, Hiiaka & Namaka Eris & Dysnomia

KBO Size Comparison Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt

Orbit similar to KBOs Size similar to KBOs KBO companions common Composition similar to KBOs

Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt

Orbit similar to KBOs

Size similar to KBOs KBO companions common Composition similar to KBOs

Pluto has found its family!! IAU Definition August 2006

IAU defines planet 1. Orbits the Sun

2. Upper mass limit

not massive enough to produce fusion Deuterium fusion occurs at about 15x Jupiters mass 3. Lower mass limit

Massive enough for gravity to make it spherical

About 500 miles in diameter 4. Dominates its orbit

Dwarf planets meet 1, 2, 3, but not 4

Other Planetary Systems? Solar system alone is category of one ???

HR 8799 Planets around Other Stars

Jupiter mass planets in Mercury orbits Elliptical orbits Multiple Jupiter sized planets

Planets around pulsars Planetary System Formation Planetary systems form in a predictable

fashion from a spinning circular disk ???

Sun Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt

Giant Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud

So Much to Discover Our solar system is the oddball? Need to generalize our formation and

evolution scenarios Implications for life in the universe Lots of planets Stability of orbits?

New era of solar system study Presentation Materials

http://tinyurl.com/PA-GSFC-2013 Online Sessions Google Hangout September Info to come

Social media Facebook.com/DrFrankSummers Twitter @drfranksummers

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