ORGANIC MOLECULES 1. A substance that cannot be

ORGANIC MOLECULES 1. A substance that cannot be

ORGANIC MOLECULES 1. A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances. 2. The smallest particle of an element that retains the same chemical properties of that element. 3. The subatomic particle with a negative charge. 4. A substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that

are chemically combined. Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Macromolecules Large organic molecules Made of smaller building blocks called MONOMERS.

Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) Carbohydrates Used for quick, SHORT-TERM energy Monomer = monosaccharide Examples:

A. Monosaccharide B. Disaccharide C. Polysaccharide Monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples: 1. glucose (C6H12O6) 2. deoxyribose (in DNA) 3. ribose (in RNA) glucose 4. Fructose (in honey)

Disaccharide: two sugar unit glucose glucose Examples: Sucrose (table sugar) Lactose (milk sugar)

Polysaccharide: many sugar units glucos e glucos e glucos e glucos

e glucos e glucos e Examples: Starch (bread, potatoes)

glucos e glucos e Energy storage in plants Glycogen (liver) Energy storage in animals

Cellulose (lettuce, corn) Makes up the cell wall of plants for support Testing for Carbohydrates Monosaccharides use Benedicts solution RESULTS: Blue to green = negative Yellow to orange = positive Starch use Iodine

RESULTS: Yellow/orange = negative Purple/black = positive Lipids Compounds that do NOT mix in water. Remember: stores the most energy Examples: 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. Fats Phospholipids Oils Waxes Steroid hormones Triglycerides

Six functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage 2. Insulation 3. Cushion and protect organs 4. Protection against water loss 5. Chemical messengers (hormones) 6. Major component of cell membranes (phospholipids) Monomer: glycerol and fatty acids

H | O H- C -----O - C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 | O H- C -----O - C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 | O H- C -----O - C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 |

H Testing for Lipids Sudan IV Results: NO color change = negative RED = positive Brown Paper Bag Results: NO change = negative

Transparent spot = positive Protein Proteins (Polypeptides) Monomer Amino acids (20 different kinds of amino acids) bonded together by peptide bonds. Amino Acids aa 1

aa 2 Peptide Bonds aa3 aa 4

aa 5 Link together in different orders and lengths to create thousands of different proteins. THE SHAPE OF THE PROTEIN DETERMINES THE FUNCTION. Functions of proteins: 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. Storage: albumin (egg white) Transport: hemoglobin Regulatory: hormones Movement: muscles Structural: membranes, hair, nails Enzymes: cellular reactions

Testing for Proteins Biuret Results: Denim-blue: negative Lavender: positive Nucleic Acids Monomer composed of long chains of nucleotides

Two types: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) stores genetic information Ribonucleic acid (RNA) helps make proteins Nucleotide An iodine solution is placed on the cut side of a potato. Within seconds, a blue-black color appears. What is most likely

occurring? A. B. C. D. A A A A

positive test for proteins positive test for starches negative test for proteins negative test for starches RNA and DNA are which type of organic compound? A. B. C. D.

Carbohydrate Lipid Nucleic acid Protein

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