INTERCONTINENTAL TRANSPORT EXPERIMENT NORTH AMERICA (INTEX-NA) OBJECTIVES: To
INTERCONTINENTAL TRANSPORT EXPERIMENT NORTH AMERICA (INTEX-NA) OBJECTIVES: To quantify the North American export and import of (1) atmospheric oxidants and their precursors, (2) aerosols and their precursors, (3) long-lived greenhouse gases To relate this import/export to surface sources/sinks and to continental boundary layer chemistry TWO PHASES: Summer 2004: active photochemistry, biosphere aerosol radiative forcing
carbon uptake Early spring 2006: maximum Asian inflow maximum respiration contrast with summer INTEGRATED OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY FOR INTEX SATELLITES MODELS AIRCRAFT, SONDES, GROUND AURA: O3, CO, H2O,NO, NO2, HNO3, CH4, HCHO, ENVISAT: O3, CO, CO2, NO2, HCHO, aerosols TERRA/AQUA: CO, aerosols
GIFTS: CO, O3 3-D CTM forecasts and analyses DC-8 and P-3 aircraft Design mission to optimize value of combined satellite/aircraft data set towards addressing mission objectives and testing relevant CTMs; satellite data validation is essential component of process TIMELINE FOR AURA COLLABORATIVE SCIENCE MISSIONS Validation Instrument Development Aura operational phase 2003 Intex A
SOLVE II LBA 2004 LBA 2006 2005 WAM NOAA/NE UT/LS WAM Intex B TC3/TWP
COBRA 2007 Strat Hi Lat ? AVE AMMA NACP ENVISAT SUMMER 2004 is a window of opportunity for phase A of INTEX: Coordination with other aircraft missions pursuing synergistic objectives: UT/LS, NOAA/NE, COBRA Lay foundation for Aura validation (or perhaps first validation?) INTEGRATED OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY IN TROPOSPHERE: MAPPING OF U.S. VOC EMISSIONS FROM GOME HCHO GOME
spectral fitting Slant HCHO columns, July 1996 Aircraft profiles 3-D model profiles AMF Vertical columns Validation with in situ data 3-D model as intermediary for validation Model HCHO vs. Eisoprene GOME isoprene emission inventory, July 1996 Palmer et al. 
CAN WE USE GOME TO ESTIMATE NOx EMISSIONS? TEST IN U.S. WHERE GOOD A PRIORI EXISTS Comparison of GOME retrieval (July 1996) to GEOS-CHEM model fields using EPA emission inventory for NOx GOME GEOS-CHEM (EPA emissions) Martin et al.  MOPITT - TRACE-P - GEOS-CHEM INTEGRATION March 24, 2001 data for CO columns Colette Heald, Harvard MOPITT v2 GEOS-CHEM
MOPITT adjusted for bias MOPITT - TRACE-P - GEOS-CHEM INTEGRATION March 25, 2001 data for CO columns Colette Heald, Harvard MOPITT v2 GEOS-CHEM MOPITT adjusted for bias MOPITT - TRACE-P - GEOS-CHEM INTEGRATION Colette Heald, March 26, 2001 data for CO columns MOPITT v2 GEOS-CHEM
Harvard MOPITT adjusted for bias ROLE OF INTEX IN SATELLITE DATA VALIDATION If AURA is launched in early 2004, INTEX-NA Phase A may provide a first validation: Northern midlatitudes profiles continental and marine in coordination with AVE * High ceiling of WB-57 complements DC-8 Even if AURA is delayed beyond early 2004, INTEX-NA Phase A will make a key contribution to NASA integrated observational strategy Satellite data from ENVISAT, GIFTS, TERRA, AQUA will provide important opportunities for integration and validation, and test validation strategies from AURA We need to learn how to fuse data from aircraft and satellites in an environment where a priori knowledge is particularly good.
INTEX-NA Phase B (spring 2006) will provide a second stage of AURA validation at northern midlatitudes in coordination with AVE INTEX-NA Phase A MISSION PLAN Two aircraft DC-8: continental outflow, transcontinental gradients, convection P-3: source region characterization, BL/FT exchange Possible support from WB-57 (AVE): convective & continental outflow Coordination with UK Falcon aircraft (UT/LS), NCAR King Air (COBRA), NOAA P-3 (NOAA/NE) Timing: June-July 2004 Bases of operations: Bangor, Edwards AFB, New Orleans, Wisconsin Ancillary measurements Ozonesonde launches, ground-based lidar and in situ measurements
Looking ahead to INTEX-NA Phase B: U.S.-Japan bilateral protocol (coordinate with Japanese aircraft over W. Pacific) INTEX-NA AIRCRAFT PAYLOAD DC-8 and P-3: Remote ozone, aerosol, water vapor Ozone, CO, CO2, H2O, UV, aerosol chemistry and microphysics, N2O, NOy species, HOx and HOy species , VOCs, sulfur species, ammonia Important instrument development needs: Phase A: HOx and HNO3 intercomparison, NH3, improved aerosol chemistry Toward Phase B: CO lidar, improved HOy and carbonyls
Metamorphic Rocks "Meta" means change (Greek) "Morph" means form (Greek) A rock that has been changed from its original form (parent rock) by heat, pressure, and fluid activity into a new form (daughter rock).
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