Inherent Requirements Again: From dispositions and suppositions to

Inherent Requirements Again: From dispositions and suppositions to

Inherent Requirements Again: From dispositions and suppositions to one simplified guide to documenting the essential Marion MacGregor Burgess jcu.edu.au Accessability Student Advisor AccessAbility Services 2 Todays discussion on a Guide to documenting Inherent Requirements : jcu.edu.au Prompts Perspectives & Principles Package & Process Potential Licensing under creative commons in process.

3 Provisos Disclaimers Acknowledgements Must be shaped by end-users - Speakers opinion only - Multiple contributions over years from many across the sector, directly and indirectly (NB UWS) (Also Catherine Stuckings, Dianne Hodge) - Many areas implementing at least some of this already - Some components to be shaped by end-users - Awaiting broad application - Stepped through from first principles, practical application may be more succinct - University bias but not excluding other uses (NB. Informed Choices VET) - Course and Subject terminology used. jcu.edu.au 4 Prompts for a Guide to documenting IRs

Terminology Do we need IRs? Do varied approaches matter? Disability Standards for Education 2005 s3.4 entitled to maintain the academic requirements of the course or program, and other requirements or components that are inherent in or essential to its nature. jcu.edu.au 5 Prompts for a Guide to documenting IRs Terminology Do we need IRs? Do varied approaches matter? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNXgjnBpxGI jcu.edu.au 6

jcu.edu.au 7 Prompts for a Guide to documenting IRs Do we need IRs? Do varied approaches matter? Medical Deans, Australia and New Zealand: - Scholarly learning, clinical practice, health advocacy tasks - Plus Inherent Requirements of the medical student (literacy, verbal communication, hearing, vision, gross and fine motor skills - one fully functioning arm and the other capable of providing support Inherent Requirements for Studying Medicine in Australia & New Zealand, 2017 Dispositions : - assessment of dispositions towards Teaching required (NCATE, USA) (Welsh et al, 2010) - those internal conditions (attitudes, values, beliefs, thoughts etc) that influence our external behavior (actions and interactions with students and others). (Choi, Benson & Shudak, 2016, p. 72). - dont correlate to effective teaching performance (Choi, Benson & Shudak, 2016, p. 84). Report - 2012 Review of Disability Standards for Education tension between maintaining academic requirements and designing a course or program without participation discrimination. calls for the tertiary ed sector to be required to develop and publish inherent course requirements Final Report - 2015 Review of the Disability Standards for Education 2005 Stakeholders Perspectives [concerns that] the exclusionary nature of inherent requirements.inherently discriminates

against some people with disabilities. P22 jcu.edu.au 8 Prompts for a Guide to documenting IRs Do we need IRs? Do varied approaches matter? Michael Lyddiard B. Occ Thy Dr Jennifer Arnold Dr Dinesh Palipana jcu.edu.au 9 IR Perspectives Working definition and approach for the Guide Developing terminology/language for Tasks

The task, not the person. From variations on: Inherent requirements are the fundamental abilities, attributes, skills and behaviours necessary to complete the learning outcomes of a course while preserving the academic integrity of the learning, assessment and accreditation processes. To variations on: Inherent Requirements are the essential and core tasks of the course . (.the essential and core tasks necessary to be identified as a graduate of the course) jcu.edu.au 10 IR Perspectives Working definition and approach for the Guide Developing terminology/language for Tasks Tasks are: tangible, visible, evident, assessable, have a fundamental purpose, intent, goals, meaning IR tasks appropriate also Distinctive/Key Tasks & Inherent Requirement/Essential Tasks Competency: attained, accomplished, completed, met, achieved

performed (level of performance should be defined within the task description) Unless unmet, not attained, not completed, not achieved etc .. Not ever? (mismatch) .. Not yet? (scaffolded learning; reasonable adjustments) jcu.edu.au 11 IR Package 1. Collect materials and range of contributors/reviewers 2. Multiple review points 3. Supporting materials in IR document 4. Engagement planning, including embedded use in first year subjects (positive tool for self-development) Further explanation, including: - academic integrity - difference from learning outcomes, accreditation and Registration requirements - scaffolded learning opportunities - access to reasonable adjustments to teaching and learning conditions if indicated while achieving these tasks

- tasks themselves to be successfully performed as outlined jcu.edu.au 12 IR Guide Principles Simplify = Separate the steps & add tools 1. Identify the distinctive tasks of [university], compared to other types of learning 2. Identify the distinctive tasks of the course - compared to unrelated fields - compared to related courses in discipline 3. Format for the core intention or the fundamental purpose of the task 4. Identify the essential tasks and other tasks Task Identification Table Task Classification Table jcu.edu.au

13 IR Process: Steps and tools in detail 1. Identify the distinctive tasks of [university], compared to other types of learning 2. Identify the distinctive tasks of course - compared to unrelated fields - compared to related courses in discipline 3. Format for the core intention or the fundamental purpose of the task 4. Identify the essential tasks and other tasks Suggested key university-level tasks: - Manage a volume of information for learning that is higher than in secondary school, VET sector or pathways to university. - Produce academic [discussion/analysis/critique] of course-related topics that considers and formally references academic literature across [6-20] articles. Additional, for some areas: - Produce accurate responses to [novel] course-specific questions from a range of source information without access to the source material at the time. jcu.edu.au 14

IR Process: Steps and tools in detail 1. Identify the distinctive tasks of [university], compared to other types of learning 2. Identify the distinctive tasks of course - compared to unrelated fields - compared to related courses in discipline Cue [ Processing] Response (= Measurable Task) Cue categories: Visual cues (text, diagrams, computer code, charts, equipment); Visual cues (natural environment, human, animal) ; Audio cues (machine made; natural) ; Tactile cues ; Other Sensory cues (eg.thermal); Physical cues (gross motor, fine motor); Cognitive cues (literacy, numeracy, knowledge, processing, executive functioning); Temporal cues (adapting across or sustained over time; rapidly changing cues) (NB two-way interactions); Emotional/psychological cues; Cultural & Inclusion cues;

Ethical cues; Safety cues. Cue categorieshttp://www.westernsydney.edu.au/ir are developed from Inherent Requirements University of Western Sydney is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial Share Alike jcu.edu.au 4.0 International licence 15 IR Process: Steps and tools in detail Cue Categories Visual cues (text, diagrams, code, charts, equipment) Visual cues (natural environment, human, animal) Audio cues (machine made; natural) Tactile cues Other Sensory cues (Eg thermal) Physical cues (gross motor, fine motor) Cognitive cues (literacy, numeracy, knowledge,

processing, executive functioning) Temporal cues (adapting across or sustained over time; rapidly changing cues) (NB interactions) Emotional/psychological cues Cultural & inclusion cues Ethical cues Safety cues jcu.edu.au Key Cues Responses as tasks (produce/perform/interact) Level of Fundamental Purpose / performance Core Task (passing graduate) 16 IR Process: Steps and tools in detail

1. Identify the distinctive tasks of [university], compared to other types of learning 2. Identify the distinctive tasks of course - compared to unrelated fields - compared to related courses in discipline 3. Format the tasks for the core intention or the fundamental purpose of the task Cue When [Processing] [Response Mechanism] Ways (Core Task) Response Intention/Purpose Whats important - Review the verbs Task verbs: see/hear , write, speak.. create, produce, interact Verbs for core task: respond to, record, communicate create, produce, interact - Consider what you really want from the student

ie. Processing + response mechanism AND THEN.. (eg. Response to fire alarm cue) NB. Is the response mechanism also a core task? - includes elements that cannot be substituted, and - are linked to the identity of the course. Eg. Using TENS machines in physiotherapy for treatment . jcu.edu.au 17 IR Process: Steps and tools in detail Task Identification Table Cue Categories Key Cues Responses as tasks (produce/perform/interact) Level of Fundamental Purpose / performance Core Task (passing graduate) Visual cues (text, diagrams, code, charts, equipment) Visual cues (natural environment, human, animal)

Audio cues (machine made; natural) Tactile cues Other Sensory cues (Eg thermal) Physical cues (gross motor, fine motor) Cognitive cues (literacy, numeracy, knowledge, processing, executive functioning) Temporal cues (adapting across or sustained over time; rapidly changing cues) (NB interactions) Useful information for students: Prompts consideration of reasonable adjustment needs. Emotional/psychological cues Cultural & inclusion cues Ethical cues Safety cues jcu.edu.au

Cue categories are developed from Inherent Requirements http://www.westernsydney.edu.au/ir University of Western Sydney is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International licence Distinctive Tasks, written as core tasks: can then be assessed to see if essential/inherent tasks or not. 18 IR Process: Steps and tools in detail 1. Identify the key tasks of [university], compared to other types of learning 2. Identify the key tasks of course - compared to unrelated fields - compared to related courses in discipline 3. Format the key tasks for - the core intention or the fundamental purpose of the task

4. Distinguish between the essential tasks and the other tasks Essential course components: Important to the course and Important to the assessment 1. Level of consequences if the task is NOT included in the course 2. Likelihood the task will need to be completed successfully to be able to pass Essential Task = High Consequence if not part of course X High Likelihood is required for pass jcu.edu.au 19 Process: Identify the Essential Task Consequence Table* CONSEQUENCE IF TASK NOT INCLUDED IN THE COURSE Descriptions A significant/medium impacts on the functioning of the University, the course, the performance environment or individual lives or wellbeing. These are defined as: Moderate Safety: e.g. Significant temporary or minor permanent disability of up to two people

Personal wellbeing: e.g. impacts on functioning to limit engagement for up to 1 year Governance: e.g. Breach of legislation with moderate breach consequences; formal complaint against the university; up to 5 student placement sites (up to 20% of placements) permanently cancel arrangements University reputation: e.g. negative reputation impacts evident for up to 6 months in the media and impacting on public engagement with the university; results in cancellation of university or course events Environmental /Financial impact: e.g. Breach of environmental laws resulting in fines up to $5000; equipment costs over $1000, loss of significant data or significantly disrupted unit functioning for up to 1 month Course identity: e.g. absence of task achievement makes it significantly difficult to demonstrate the distinction between this course and a related course * For review jcu.edu.au

Developed from Girl Guides Queensland Risk Analysis materials 20 Process: Identify the Essential Task Likelihood Table TASK LIKELIHOOD Almost Certain Descriptions The task will almost certainly be assessed and will need to be successfully performed to be able to pass overall (assessed directly in one or more subjects and pass very unlikely without completion). Probable The task will probably be assessed and need to be successfully attained to be able to pass overall (assessed directly in one or more subjects and pass difficult without completion). Possible The task could be assessed in the course (assessed for less than 50% of the cohort) and will contribute to significantly to ability to pass. Unlikely

The task is unlikely to be assessed (assessed for less than 20% of the cohort) and will not be necessary to pass. Rare The task is not assessed or assessment is engaged in by less than 10% of the cohort and will not be necessary to pass.. At entry non-verbal communication can be assessed during selection interviews (if used) or by other measures. During the course a students non-verbal communication will be assessed during assessments and teaching episodes. Inherent Requirements for Studying Medicine in Australia and New Zealand, Medical Deans Australian and New Zealand, 2017 jcu.edu.au 21 Process: Identify the Essential Task Classification Table TASK LIKELIHOOD: Likelihood that students will need to accomplish the task to pass CONSEQUENCE IF TASK NOT INCLUDED IN COURSE: Maximum credible consequence of not including the pass-level performance of the task as a component of the course. Insignificant M in o r

Moderate M a jo r Catastrophic Almost Certain Useful Recommended Essential Essential Essential Probable Useful Recommended Essential Essential

Essential Possible Incidental Useful Recommended Essential Essential Unlikely Incidental Incidental Useful Recommended Recommended Rare

Incidental Incidental Useful Useful Recommended Ie. Importance of the task to the course, and importance of the task to the assessment. jcu.edu.au 22 Potential: - Transparent, verifiable Guide both new and experienced IR-documenters Easy conversion of existing inherent requirements documents Simplified and accurate IR lists Expand IR document usefulness by including other/key tasks and cue lists as relevant information, clearly classified - Reduce false positives and false negatives in stakeholder perceptions of course matches - Triggers a closer consideration of assessment if needed

- Prioritise and focus student learning and reasonable adjustments jcu.edu.au 23 Summary: 1. Focus on tasks not personal attributes 2. List the important cues for performance 3. identify the distinctive course tasks, written for their core purpose 4. Identify the essential course tasks separate from recommended, useful and incidental tasks. 5. Specify use for inclusion and proactive decision making, then perhaps risk management. jcu.edu.au 24 Probing & Pondering? jcu.edu.au

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