Perezhivanie - the concept and its content: in

Perezhivanie - the concept and its content: in

Perezhivanie - the concept and its content: in search of lost? Nikolai Veresov Monash University Australia 1 . . . perezhivanie thus far remains more a tantalizing notion than a concept with clear meaning and import to those who hope to draw on it.

(Smagorinsky 2011, p. 339). 2 Antoniadou, V. (2011). Virtual collaboration, perezhivanie and teacher learning: a socio-cultural-historical perspective. Bellaterra Journal of teaching & learning language & literature, 4(3), 53-70 Brennan, M (2014). Perezhivanie: What Have We Missed about Infant Care? Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 15, 284-292. Chen, F. (2015). Parents' perezhivanie supports children's development of emotion regulation: a holistic view. Early child development and care, 185, (6), 851-867

Daniels, H. (2008). Vygotsky and research. Routledge. Daniels, H. (2010). Motives, emotion, and change. Cultural-historical psychology, 2, 24-33. Fakhrutdinova L. (2010). On the Phenomenon of Perezhivanie. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 48 (2), 31-47. Ferholt, B. (2009). The development of cognition, emotion, imagination and creativity as made visible through adult-child joint play: perezhivanie through playworlds (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, San Diego. Ferholt, B. (2010). A synthetic-analytic method for the study of perezhivanie: Vygotsky literary analysis applied to playworlds. In M. C. Connery, V. John-Steiner & Ana Marjanovic-Shane (Eds.), Vygotsky and creativity: a culturalhistorical approach to play, meaning making, and the arts (pp. 163-179). Peter Lang. Fleer, M. (2013). Theorising Play in the Early Years. Cambridge University Press Quiones, G. & Fleer, M. (2011). "Visual Vivencias": A cultural-historical tool for understanding the lived experiences

of young children's everyday lives". In E. Johansson & J. White (Eds.), Educational research with our youngest: Voices of infants and toddlers. Netherlands: Springer. Mahn, H. (2003). Periods in child development. Vygotskys perspective. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. Ageyev & S. Miller (Eds.),Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context (pp.119-138). Cambridge. Mahn H, John-Steiner, V. (2002). The gift of confidence: A Vygotskian view of emotions. In G. Wells & G. Claxton (Eds.). Learning for Life in the 21st Century: Sociocultural Perspectives on the Future of Education (pp. 46 58). Blackwell. 3 2014

- ISCAR Sydney Congress: 5 presentations and 3 symposia on perezhivanie 2015 ISCAR Australia-Brazil international symposium on perezhivanie (Melbourne, Monash University, February) 2016 International research in Early childhood journal (IRECE) special issue on perezhivanie (in press) Mind, Culture and Activity journal (MCA) special issue on perezhivanie (in press) Perezhivanie, emotions and subjectivity book, Springer Publishers (2017?)

4 Perezhivanie is probably one of the most used and least understood constructs to appear in contemporary literature 5

Zone of proximal development is probably one of the most used and least understood constructs to appear in contemporary educational literature Palinscar, A. S. (1999). Keeping the metaphor of scaffolding fresh A response to C. Addison Stones The metaphor of scaffolding: Its utility for the field of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, p.370 6 ARE WE STILL INTERESTED IN WHAT VYGOTSKY

MEANS BY PEREZHIVANIE? What are methodological challenges? What are consequences to inform our research? 7 8 Perezhivanie () is a common name for direct

psychological experience*. From a subjective perspective, every psychological process is perezhivanie. In every perezhivanie we distinguish: firstly, an act, and secondly, the content of perezhivanie. The first is an activity related to the appearance of certain perezhivanie; the second is the content, the composition of what is experienced (Varshava & Vygotsky 1931, p. 128). *Opyt () in the Russian original text.) in the Russian original text. 9

What is perezhivanie? Psychological phenomenon (P.1) P1.1. an activity connected to the emergence of the given perezhivanie (HOW? Process) P1.2. the content constituting what is being experienced (WHAT? Content)

EXAMPLE: THINKING (PROCESS) THOUGHT (CONTENT) 10 PEREZHIVANIE AS A CONCEPT IN CULTURALHISTORICAL THEORY - P2. perezhivanie is a concept which allows us to study the role and influence of environment on the psychological development of children in the analysis of the laws of development. Vygotsky, 1994, p.343 11

Perezhivanie My dialogue with Vygotsky is about this Phenomenon (P1) Concept

(P2) 12 WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL CONTENT OF THE CONCEPT OF PEREZHIVANIE (P2)? TO FIND AN ANSWER WE HAVE TO IDENTIFY: What aspect of human development this concept is related to? How is this concept connected with other concepts within the theory? 13

14 Perezhivanie in Vygotskys texts: - the prism - the unit of individual and environmental characteristics 15 Perezhivanie as a prism that refracts social influences it is not any of the factors in themselves (if taken without reference to

the child) which determines how they will influence the future course of his development, but the same factors refracted through the prism of the child's perezhivanie (Vygotsky, 1994, p.339-340). REFLECTION --------- REFRACTION 16 17

18 19 20 21 EDF2030

22 Which of presented is about P2? 23 it is not any of the factors in themselves (if taken without reference to the child) which determines how they will influence the future course of his development, but the same factors refracted through the prism of the child's perezhivanie (Vygotsky, 1994, p.339-340).

This is such a prism which determines the role and influence of the environment on the development on...the child's character, his psychological development, etc. (Vygotsky, 1994, p. 341) HOWEVER, WHAT DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN? 24 1. Social environment as a source of development The social environment is the source for the appearance of all specific human properties of the personality gradually acquired by the child or the source of

social development of the child (Vygotsky. 1998, p. 203). Development - how the social becomes the individual 25 SOCIAL SITUATION OF DEVELOPMENT: completely original, exclusive single and unique relation specific to the given age, between the child and reality, mainly the social reality, that surrounds him. We call

this relation the social situation of development at given age. The social situation of development represents the initial moment for all dynamic changes that occur in development... It determines wholly and completely the forms and the path along which the child will acquire ever newer personality characteristics, drawing them from the social reality as from the basic source of development, the path along which the social becomes the individual (Vygotsky, 1998, p.198). 26 We are dealing with three children, brought to us from one family. The external

situation in this family is the same for all three children... The mother drinks and, as a result, apparently suffers from several nervous and psychological disorders. The children find themselves in a very difficult situation. When drunk, and during these breakdowns, the mother had once attempted to throw one of the children out of the window and she regularly beat them or threw them to the floor. In a word, the children are living in conditions of dread and fear due to these circumstances (Vygotsky, 1994, p.339-340). The three children are brought to our clinic, but each one of them presents a completely different picture of disrupted development, caused by the same situation. The same circumstances result in an entirely different

picture for the three children (Ibid). 27 The youngest of these children ...reacts to the situation by developing a number of neurotic symptoms, i.e. symptoms of a defensive nature. He is simply overwhelmed by the horror of what is happening to him. As a result, he develops attacks of terror, enuresis and he develops a stammer, sometimes being unable to speak at all as he loses his voice. In other words, the child's reaction amounts to a state of complete depression and helplessness in the face of this

situation. (Ibid) 28 The second child approached the situation differently. He was ...developing an extremely agonizing condition, a state of inner conflict... On the one hand, from the child's point of view, the mother is an object of painful intensive (NV) attachment, and on the other, she represents a source of all kinds of terrors and terrible emotional experiences [perezhivanija] terrible impressions for the child (NV). The second child was brought to us with this kind of deeply pronounced conflict and a

sharply colliding internal contradiction expressed in a simultaneously positive and negative attitude towards the mother, a terrible attachment to her and an equally terrible hate for her a terrific attachment to her and an equally terrific hate for her (NV), combined with terribly contradictory behaviour. (Vygotsky, 1994, p. 340). 29 Finally, the third and eldest child ...showed signs of some precocious maturity, seriousness and solicitude. He already understood the situation. He understood that their mother was ill and he pitied her. He

could see that the younger children found themselves in danger when their mother was in one of her states of frenzy. And he had a special role. He must calm his mother down, make certain that she is prevented from harming the little ones and comfort them. Quite simply, he has become the senior member of the family, the only one whose duty it was to look after everyone else. As a result of this, the entire course of his development underwent a striking change. This was not a lively child with normal, lively, simple interests, appropriate to his age and exhibiting a lively level of activity. It was a child whose course of normal development was severely disrupted, a different type of child (Vygotsky, 1994, p. 340-341). 30

So ... depending on the fact that the same situation had been experienced by the three children in three different ways three different perezhivanie of the same situation appeared in three children (NV), the influence which this situation exerted on their development also turns out to be different (Ibid). 31 ...by citing this example, I only wished to clarify the idea that... paedology does not

investigate the environment as such without regard to the child, but instead looks at the role and influence of the environment on the course of development. This is such a prism which determines the role and influence of the environment on the development of...the child's character, his psychological development, etc. (Ibid.) 32 An example shows that while the three children had the same social situation, they simultaneously had different social situations of development.

To state a certain, general, formal position it would be correct to say that the environment determines the development of the child through experience perezhivanie (NV) of the environment;. ..the child is a part of the social situation, and the relation of the child to the environment and the environment to the child occurs through experience... perezhivanie (NV) of the child himself; the forces of the environment acquire a controlling significance because the child experiences them (Vygotsky, 1998, p. 294). 33

Drama of life = collision, contradiction DRAMATIC PEREZHIVANIE Qualitative change of the system of HMF Turning point of developmental trajectory 34

Genetically, social relations, real relations of people, stand behind all the higher mental functions and their relations (Vygotsky, 1997, p. 106) NOT IN SOCIAL RELATIONS, BUT AS A SOCIAL RELATION 35 The basic principle of the functioning of higher functions (personality) is social, entailing interaction of functions, in place of interaction between people. They can be most fully developed

in the form of drama the dynamic of the personality is drama (Vygotsky, 1929/1989, p. 67). (Vygotsky, 1929/1989, p.59-61; Original emphasis) 36 in the same social situation, three children had three different perezhivanie and therefore experienced three different dramas. This means that the initial intermental forms of their relations were essentially different in the same social situation. Consequently, because the initial intermental forms were different, the

childrens social situations of development and their individual developmental trajectories became different. 37 Perezhivanie as a theortetical concept: P2.1. the prism Social situation of development General genetic law of cultural development

Development as drama P 2.2.Perezhivanie as a unit 38 Complex whole (unity) = ) in the Russian original text. (edinstvo) Analysis by elements

()) Does not contain basic characteristics of a complex whole Analysis by units () Contains basic characteristics of a complex whole 39

Unit Complex whole (unity) 40 Unit Complex whole (unity)

41 Vygotsky, 1998, Vol.5, p.294 Vygotsky, 1984, Vol.4, p.382 A unity can be noted in the study of personality and environment. This unity has been called experience. The child's

experience is also this kind of very simple unity about which we must not say that in itself it represents the influence of the environment on the child or the individuality of the child himself; experience is the unity of the personality and the environment as it is represented in development. A unit can be noted in the study of personality and environment. This unit

has been called perezhivanie. The child's perezhivanie is also this kind of very simple unit about which we must not say that in itself it represents the influence of the environment on the child or the individuality of the child himself; perezhivanie is the unit of the personality and the environment as it is represented in development.

42 Perezhivanie as a theortetical concept: P2.1. the prism Social situation of development General genetic law of cultural development Development as drama P 2.2.Perezhivanie as a unit of the unity of the

environmental and personal aspects SOCIAL SITUATION OF DEVELOPMENT 43 [Psychology] ought to always be capable of finding the particular prism through which the influence of the environment on the child is refracted, i.e. it ought to be able to find the relationship which exists between the child and its environment, the child's...perezhivanie, in other words how a child becomes aware of, interprets, and emotionally relates to a certain event.

44 What is perezhivanie? 45 Translation Original

In modern theory, experience is introduced as a unity of consciousness, that is, a unity in which the basic properties of consciousness are given as such, while in attention and in thinking, the connection of consciousness is not given. In modern theory, perezhivanie is introduced as a unit of consciousness,

that is, a unit in which the basic properties of consciousness are given as such, while in attention and in thinking, the connection of consciousness is not given. experience is the actual dynamics of the unity of consciousness, that is, the whole which comprises consciousness

Perezhivanie is a dynamic unit of consciousness, the consciousness consists of () ) ) perezhivanie Vygotsky, 1998, p. 294 Vygotsky, 1984, p.382

46 Perezhivanie as a theortetical concept: P2.1. the prism Social situation of development General genetic law of cultural development Development as drama P 2.2.Perezhivanie as a unit of the unity of the environmental

and personal P2.3. - Perezhivanie as a unity dynamic unit of consciousness 47 Perezhivanie as a phenomenon (P1) Phenomenological level of analysis Conceptual level of

analysis Process Refracting prism Content Unit of

individual and environmental Unit of consciousness 48

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