A Brief Background of Florida HABs and History of Florida Red Tide Dr. Vincent Lovko Mote Marine Laboratory Phytoplan kton Ecology Program Collier County Informational Meeting on Red Tide Aug. 29, 2018 Background - What is a harmful algal bloom? Phytoplankton - single-celled photosynthetic microorganisms Very broad taxonomic diversity Need sunlight and nutrients to grow Base of the food web; important components of the ecosystem; 90% of ocean photosynthesis; ~70% of
worlds oxygen Excessive growth/concentration of a species is considered a bloom Typically a result of a combination of factors; biology, chemistry, and physics Background - What is a harmful algal bloom? Algal bloom vs Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Bloom defined by cell numbers Doesnt always discolor the water Harmful defined by negative effect HAB Events Occurring Along Coastal USA https://www.whoi.edu/science/B/redtide/HABdistribution/HABmap.html
Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) Background - What is a harmful algal bloom? Some blooms can produce harmful effects Excessive biomass blocks sunlight, fouls shorelines Dying blooms cause oxygen depletion Production of a variety of phycotoxins Collectively known as HABs
Primary HABs in Florida Florida Red Tide Karenia brevis Fresh and brackish water cyanobacteria Brown Tide Aureoumbra lagunensis Other Blooms Freshwater Cyanobacterial blooms Caused by several species of ancient group of photosynthetic bacteria Excess eutrophication in inland freshwater
bodies leads to blooms Recent blooms in St. Lucie River estuary in 2005, 2013, and 2016; Callosahatchee and St. Lucie systems in 2018 Many are toxin producers toxicity highly variable; hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, dermatoxins http://www.npr.org/2016/07/09/485367388 2018 Special Lecture Series Marine Cyanobacteria Blooms Trichodesmium Annual blooms on the west coast of Florida, typically offshore in nutrient poor waters
Non-toxic, nitrogen fixer; may play a role in K. brevis blooms Fresh blooms appear yellowish-brown, float at surface sea sawdust Old, degraded blooms can wash ashore and appear as a slick http://www.npr.org/2016/07/09/485367388 https://ncma.bigelow.org/ccmp1510?___SID=U#.WJEXq32unXA Brown Tide Aureoumbra lagunensis Non-toxic; excessive biomass can block sunlight, deplete oxygen fish kills First observed in FL in 2005, first bloom in 2012 - may occur naturally , or may have
been introduced via ballast water Massive bloom in IRL and Banana River lagoon early 2016 millions of cells/mL tpa.cfnews13.com Photo by St. Johns River Water Management staff http://www.wmfe.org/brown-tide-looms-over-central-florida-lagoons/56243 Florida red tide - Karenia brevis Recent major blooms in the last decade+ 2004-2006, 2012-2013, 2014, 2015-2016, 2016-2017, 2017-2018 Produces a potent neurotoxin called brevetoxin (PbTx)
Brief History of Florida Red Tide 16th century In 1542, the Spanish explorer Alvar Nuez Cabeza de Vaca published stories from Florida Indians of toxic "red water" and the death of birds and fish in this region 1844 -- The first scientifically documented red-tide episode in U.S. waters occurs in the Gulf along the West Florida Shelf and off the Panhandle near Panama City 1878 -- Florida's first recorded protracted period of red-tide episodes begins and continues for 10 years 1880 -- A widespread episode of bird mortality affects the Florida Gulf. It is believed by some to have resulted from red tide 1884 -- The first incident of human sickness from red-tide-infected shellfish is recorded in Florida Brief History of Florida Red Tide 1947 -- Massive red-tide bloom along the Florida Gulf Coast lasts nearly a year, severely impacting the commercial fishing industry and the Tarpon Springs sponge beds. This bloom
led to the identification of the causative organism, Karenia brevis 1953 -- The longest single red-tide episode recorded to that date begins an 18-month stay along the Florida Gulf Coast 1994 -- A two-year red-tide bloom begins, eclipsing the 40-year record for sustained episodes 1996 -- After a brief respite, red tide returns to the Gulf again in January, and within a month extends from Pinellas County nearly to Key West. Red tide is blamed for the deaths of 238 manatees, 10 percent of the total population What Causes Florida Red Tide? Multiple factors affect red tide event initiation, development and termination: Complex biological interactions (competition with other phytoplankton & zooplankton) Many types and sources of nutrients
Physical circulation; tides, currents, density boundaries, salinity, temperature Nutrient Sources for Florida Red Tides Saharan Dust Atmospheric Inputs Fe NO3 CO2
Zooplankton droppings Trichodesmium: N2 fixation Nutrients from deep water & Sediments Reference: Dr. C. Heil, 2005 Estuarine Discharge of N&P (wet season)
Recycled from decay Natural mineral Deposits & Swamps, Humanderived Fertilizer, Sewage What Causes Florida Red Tide? Physical Bloom Development and Movement Temperature & Salinity Water Density
Currents and circulation patterns Jan. 9, 2005 Initial Bloom Observation Tampa Bay Hind-cast modeling showed off-shore bottom origin (Weisberg, 2006) Feb. 10, 2005 Bloom Development
Charlotte Harbor Charlotte Harbor NOAA Satellite Image (Chlorophyll) Tampa Bay Expanded to over 4,000 mi2 in ~30 days
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