Grondhervorming A Gildenhuys KONSTITUSIONELE HOF (Tshwane City v
Grondhervorming A Gildenhuys KONSTITUSIONELE HOF (Tshwane City v Link Africa, 2015 per Cameron & Froneman) "This court has recognised that property as an individual right is not absolute. It is subject to societal imperatives. Indeed, pre-constitutional property concepts recognised that property
should also serve the public good. This is a widely recognised general principle of the common law." ARTIKEL 14(3) DUITSE GRONDWET (Grundgesetz fr die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) Property entails obligations. Its use should also serve the public interest.
ART 25(1) VAN DIE KONSTITUSIE Niemand mag eiendom ontneem word nie behalwe ingevolge n algemeen geldende regsvoorskrif, en geen regsvoorskrif mag arbitrere ontneming van eiendom veroorloof nie. ARTIKEL 1(1) VAN DIE ONTEIENINGS-WETSONTWERP
Expropriation means the compulsory acquisition of property by an expropriating authority or an organ of state upon request to an expropriating authority, and expropriate has a corresponding meaning. PROF ANDR VAN DER WALT & PROF RACHAEL WALSH The validity requirements for regulatory
public interest limitations on the use of private property are that (a) the purpose of the regulatory measure must be legitimate; (b) the limitations must be properly authorized by law and comply with formal procedural requirements; and (c) their effects on property owners or users must be proportionate in the sense of being rational, reasonable and nonexcessive. ART 25(3) VAN DIE KONSTITUSIE
Die bedrag van die vergoeding en die tyd en wyse van betaling moet regverdig en billik wees, en moet n billike ewewig toon tussen die openbare belang en die belange van diegene wat geraak word, met inagneming van alle tersaaklike omstandighede, met inbegrip van ART 25(3) VAN DIE KONSTITUSIE (VERVOLG)
(a) die huidige gebruik van die eiendom; (b) die geskiedenis van die verkryging en gebruik van die eiendom; (c) die markwaarde van die eiendom; (d) die omvang van regstreekse belegging en subsidie deur die staat ten opsigte van die verkryging en voordelige kapitale verbetering van die eiendom; en (e) die doel van die onteiening.
ARTIKEL 14(3) DUITSE GRONDWET (Grundgesetz fr die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) Expropriation (Enteignung) shall only be permissible in the public interest. It may only be ordered by or pursuant to a law which determines the nature and extent of compensation. Compensation shall reflect a fair balance between the public interest and the interests of those affected.
PROF DUARD KLEYN "The equality principle does not allow nominal compensation nor, as a rule, does it justify less then market value. In may, in fact, be more than market value." LORD MORRIS (Birmingham City Corporation v West Midland Baptist Trust, 1970 AC)
" The word 'compensation' would be a mockery if what was paid was something that did not compensate. REGTER MOORE [Full compensation is required by] common law, common sense and common decency". PROF SLUYSMANS & PROF WARING The compensation should preferably be full
compensation in accordance with the equivalence principle: a persons wealth and income should (as much as possible) be the same before and after expropriation. This entails that the compensation should at least encompass a component .. reasonably related to the market value. KONSTITUSIONELE HOF (du Toit v Minister of Transport, 2006, per Mokgoro J)
".... [T]he market value of the expropriated property could become the starting point in the application of s 25(3) of the Constitution since it is one of the few factors in the section which is readily quantifiable. Thereafter, an amount may be added or subtracted as the relevant circumstances in s 25(3) may require. Actual loss
may play a similar role depending on the circumstances of the case." PROF WJ du PLESSIS [A contextual approach] would enable a judge at times to consider including evidence on or considerations such as the economic standing of an owner in determining what an equitable amount of compensation would be. It might encourage a judge to consider
discounting compensation, if the goal that the expropriating legislation wishes to achieve requires the owner's rights to give way to the bigger public purpose. MSIZA v DIRECTOR GENERAL,RURAL DEVELOPMENT and LAND REFORM (2016, per Ngcukaitobi AJ) By considering the purpose of the
expropriation as a factor (in this instance security of tenure for labour tenants and the purpose to redress the injustices of the past), the Constitution effectively creates a counter weight to market value, which to date has served as the central consideration in calculating compensation. ARTIKEL 25(8) VAN DIE KONSTITUSIE Geen bepaling van hierdie artikel verhinder
die staat om wetgewende en ander maatreels te tref om grond-, water- en verbandhoudende hervorming te bewerkstellig ten einde die gevolge van rassediskriminasie van die verlede reg te stel nie, op voorwaarde dat enige afwyking van die bepalings van hierdie artikel in ooreenstemming met die bepalings van artikel 36(1) is. ARTIKEL 36(1) VAN DIE GRONDWET
Die regte in die Handves van Regte kan slegs kragtens n algemeen geldende regsvoorskrif beperk word in die mate waarin die beperking redelik en regverdigbaar is in n oop en demokratiese samelewing gebaseer op menswaardigheid, gelykheid en vryheid, met inagneming van alle tersaaklike faktore, met inbegrip van ARTIKEL 36(1) VAN DIE GRONDWET
(a) die aard van die reg; (b) die belangrikheid van die doel van die beperking; (c) die aard en omvang van die beperking; (d) die verband tussen die beperking en die doel daarvan; en (e) n minder beperkende wyse om die doel te bereik. OU RESTITUSIE-EISE
80 000 ingedien, 73 000 afgehandel NUWE RESTITUSIE-EISE 397 000 geldige eise verwag 77 000 reeds ingedien
PROF AMNON LEHAVI For many centuries, land was considered not only the most essential source of independent economic livelihood, but moreover a chief indicator of a persons social and political status. IN RE SOUTHERN RHODESIA (Privy Council, 1919)
"Some tribes are so low in the scale of social organization that their usages and conceptions of rights and duties are not to be reconciled with the institutions or the legal ideas of civilized society. It would be idle to impute to such people some shadow of the rights known to our law and then to transmute it into the substance of transferable rights of property as we know it.
ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION DISCUSSION DOCUMENT (ANC JULY 2017) "South Africa currently has a significant leakage of state resources, which has the effect of reducing the finances available for economic transformation. More must be done to stamp out corruption and wastage." PRES JG ZUMA, 24 FEBR 2017
How are we going to achieve all the goals mentioned in the State of the Nation Address and all the laws and policies that we are busy amending to enable faster land reform, including land expropriation without compensation as provided for in the Constitution. KONSTITUSIE VAN ZIMBABWE (Art 72(7)(c))
(i) the former colonial power has an obligation to pay compensation for agricultural land compulsorily acquired for resettlement through an adequate fund established for the purpose; and (ii) if the former colonial power fails to pay compensation through such a fund, the Government of Zimbabwe has no obligation to pay compensation for agricultural land compulsorily acquired for resettlement.
PROF ANDR VAN DER WALT In short, the Indian Supreme Court realised that private property was not insulated against state interference by the mere existence of the constitutional property clause. [T]his realization eventually dawned upon the Court as a political and not as a constitutional reality: the Court acknowledged as a matter of practical politics that it could only retain its power of constitutional review if it was willing to compromise and sacrifice its jurisdiction
over the matter of adequate compensation for compulsory acquisitions of property. WYLE REGTER KEITH McCALL (Oxford, 1990) Whatever course South Africa decides in the future, it should not ignore the unfairness of taking property without market-related compensation. The State's power to expropriate should not be unleashed as a disguised form of taxation. Taxes spread throughout
a society are a proper means of financing public acquisitions. The burden should not be placed unjustly and disproportionately onto the shoulders of a few, regardless of the historical reasons which may have led to their acquisition of land. DEURVAART TUSSEN DIE ROTS VAN SCYLLA EN DIE MAALKOLK VAN CHARYBDIS
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