NUTRITION Freshman Health What Is Nutrition? -The process
NUTRITION Freshman Health What Is Nutrition? -The process by which the body takes in and uses food.
What is a Nutrient? - A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. - Some provide energy. - All help build cells and tissues, and regulate bodily processes such as breathing. - No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function. The Six Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates
Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Carbohydrates WHAT IT DOES -Your body converts carbohydrates to glucose (a simple sugar that is your bodys main source of energy) -Your body uses energy from
carbohydrates to do every task -4 calories per gram EXAMPLES OF SOURCES Simple Carbohydrates - fruit, milk, sugar cane Complex Carbohydrates - whole grains, nuts, potatoes, seeds Fiber - fruit, vegetables, oatmeal, brown rice -There are simple and complex
carbohydrates EXTRA NOTES: Simple Carbohydrates - sugars Complex Carbohydrates - starches Fiber is an indigestible complex carbohydrates and is used to move waste through the digestive system (20-35g each day) Proteins WHAT IT DOES -Help build, maintain, and repair body cells and tissues -Used to make enzymes, hormones,
and antibodies -Provide energy EXAMPLES OF SOURCES Complete Protein - fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt Incomplete Protein - beans, peas, nuts, whole grains -Made up of amino acids -4 calories per gram
EXTRA NOTES: The body cannot produce 9 of 20 amino acids needed so a person must get the 9 (essential amino acids) from food sources Complete Proteins - contain enough amounts of all 9 essential amino acids Incomplete Proteins - lack on or more of the essential amino acids Fats WHAT IT DOES -Type of lipid (fatty substance that does not dissolve in water) -Source of energy
-Made up of fatty acids -Transports Vitamins A, D, E, and K in blood EXAMPLES OF SOURCES Saturated fats - animal fats, beef, pork, dairy are higher than chicken and fish Unsaturated fats - olive oil, canola oil, corn oil
-Source of Linoleic acid (needed for growth and healthy skin) -9 calories per gram EXTRA NOTES: Unsaturated fats are better for you than saturated fats Vitamins WHAT IT DOES EXAMPLES OF SOURCES
-Help regulate many vital body Vitamin C - citrus fruits, broccoli, processes, which includes digestion, cantaloupe, tomatoes, potatoes absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients B Vitamins - whole grain cereals, milk, cheese, liver, fish, meat, eggs, -There are water-soluble and fatvegetables soluble vitamins Vitamin A - milk, carrots, green vegetables EXTRA NOTES: pg 119-figure 5.1, pg120-figure 5.2
Water-Soluble Vitamins - dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood during digestion - they need to be replenished regularly by eating the certain food sources Fat-Soluble Vitamins - absorbed, stored, and transported in fat - too much of these vitamins can be toxic Minerals WHAT IT DOES EXAMPLES OF SOURCES -Help form healthy bones and teeth
and regulate many vital body processes Calcium - dairy, leafy vegetables -The body cannot manufacture these nutrients Magnesium - whole grains, dark green leafy vegetables, nuts Phosphorus - milk, peas, fish, eggs
Iron - meat, shellfish, poultry, peanuts EXTRA NOTES: pg121 - Figure 5.3 Water WHAT IT DOES -Vital to every body function -Transports other nutrients to and carries wastes from your cells -Lubricates joints and mucous
membranes EXAMPLES OF SOURCES Plain Water Milk Juice Fruits Vegetables -Enables swallowing and digestion -Helps maintain normal body temperature through perspiration
EXTRA NOTES: Drink at least 8 cups of water every day to maintain health Nutrients That Have Calories: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Calories Per Gram: Protein calories
Definition of a Calorie: A unit of heat that measures the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to body Variables which affect the need for nutrients: 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Activity Level
4. Climate 5. Health 6. State of Nutrition The U.S. Dietary Guidelines: 3 BROAD AREAS A: Aim For Fitness B: Build A Healthy Base C: Choose Sensibly AIM FOR FITNESS
1. Aim For A Healthy Weight 2. Be Physically Active Each Day (60 min.) BUILD A HEALTHY BASE 3. Make your food choices carefully 4. Choose a variety of grains
products, especially whole grains 5. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily 6. Keep food safe to eat CHOOSE SENSIBLY 7. Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat 8. Choose beverages and foods
to moderate your intake of sugars 9. Choose and prepare food with less Building a Healthy Base is Possible By Using the Food Guide Pyramid FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID VID EO Grains
- Servings Daily: 3-10 ounces - Major Nutrient: Carbohydrates, Fiber Serving: 1 oz = 1 slice bread 1 cup dry cereal = cup pasta or rice - Tips: eat at least 3 oz of whole grains each day Vegetables Servings Daily: 1-4 cups Major Nutrient: Vitamins, Fiber Serving: Eat a variety of colors
Tips: Eat more dark green and orange vegetables Fruits Servings Daily 1-2 cups Major Nutrient: Vitamins, Fiber Serving: 1 medium/small piece of fruit = 1 cup Tips: eat a variety of fruit, go easy on juices Milk
Servings Daily 2-3 cups Major Nutrient: Minerals, Protein Serving 1 oz cheese 1 cup milk/yogurt Tips: go low-fat or fat free, if you cant consume milk, choose other calcium sources Meat and Beans Servings Daily: 2-7 ounces Major Nutrient: Protein
Serving: 1 oz meat = 1 egg = 1 T peanut butter = cup cooked beans = oz nuts or seeds Tips: choose low fat or lean meats, bake, broil or grill. Vary protein. Oils Servings Daily: 3-11 teaspoons Major Nutrient: Fat Serving: Watch for it in foods such as nuts, olives, mayonnaise, salad
dressing Tips: Use canola, olive, peanut, soybean, corn safflower or sunflower oil. Fats and Oils Fats are solid at room temperature and oils are liquid. Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg of cholesterol. Keep trans fatty acid consumption as
low as possible. Choose meat and dairy products that are low in fat. Sugar Keep sugar within the discretionary calorie allowance. Choose water or fat free milk to drink. Limit sweet snacks and desserts. Select unsweetened cereals.
Discretionary Calorie Allowance The calories remaining after accounting for the calories needed for all the food groups. These can be used up with poor food choices in the pyramid or saved for a real treat! Physical Exercise Be physically active for at least 30 minutes a day.
About 60 minutes a day of physical activity may be needed to prevent weight gain. For sustained weight loss at least 60-90 minutes of physical activity is needed. Children and teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes every day! **PROJECT** - Get into group of no more than 3 people - Choose on of the following projects.
- Create a poster of the food guide pyramid. It must include all sections, at least 5 pictures of food sources for each food group, and at least 3 dietary guidelines somewhere on the poster. OR - Create a poem or a rap about the food guide pyramid and nutrition. It must include at least 25 lines, 3 dietary guidelines, all food pyramid groups, and 5 healthy food choices. References Glencoe Health Textbook - 2004 edition
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