V I R S R E & G

V I R S R E & G

V I R S R E & G D N U

O R R E T A W WATER CYCLE Condensatio n Precipitation

Transpiration Evaporation n u R off Infiltration Ground water WATER BUDGET V. FINANCIAL BUDGET

transpiration, Continuous cycle Evaporation, of evapotranspiration , condensation, and precipitation. Affected by temperature, vegetation, wind, precipitation and -Vary by location Water budget Incoming (increase): Precipitation Condensation

Outgoing (Decrease): Evapotranspiration Financial budget Incoming: Paycheck Misc. income Outgoing: Expenses GEOGRAPHY WATER BUDGETS

I N C R E A S E D WAT E R BUDGETS Wet areas: Rain forests, Swamps, Marshes Low evaporation and more rain D E C R E A S E WAT E R BUDGETS Dry areas: Deserts,

Plains, Mountainous areas (rain shadow) High evaporation (more direct MICHIGANS WATER BUDGET WATER USAGE COMMON RIVER FEATURES Describe common river system features

Headwaters Meander Tributary Cutbank Beginning of a

Bend/curve in a river stream (high Watershed Oxbow elevation) Land that allows runoff Lake that is left after river water to enter a changes direction (old meander) stream/river Outside section of meander, high erosion Divide Point Bar area Inside section of meander, eroded

Land that separates water material (sediment) deposited here sheds Floodplain Delta Feeder stream Valley that can be covered by water in flood conditions Fan shaped deposit at the mouth of a stream (before enters the sea)

DIAGRAM headwaters divide watershed tributary oxbow cutbank Floodplain delta

meander point bar Headward: 3 WAYS THAT RIVERS ERODE SEDIMEN process of lengthening and branching of a stream where the run off first occurs * carries away sediment from the slopes of the watershed Downcutting: process that deepens the channel of a stream or valley by removing material from the stream's bed or the valley's floor.

*erodes sediments down creating deeper channel Meandering: moving water in a stream erodes the outer banks and widens its valley, and the inner part of the river has less energy and deposits silt. *erodes side to side to side SEDIMENT CARRIED BY STREAMS (STREAM LOAD) Bed Load: Coarse sand, gravel and pebbles Sliding, rolling or Saltation Suspended Load: Particles of fine sand and silt Moving water keeps them suspended (very small)

Dissolved load: Mineral matter transported Transported in dissolved liquid solution STREAM GRADIENT Stream gradient :is the grade measured by the ratio of drop in elevation of a stream per unit horizontal distance, usually expressed as feet per mile or meters/kilometers. Change in Gradient = -------------------------------------elevation Velocity= -------------------------------Change in

distance Young Streams/ Rivers Narrow channels Small flood plains Downcutting Deep slopes Waterfalls Distance Time Older Rivers

Wide channels Large flood plains lateral erosion gentle slopes FLOODING - overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.

Natural flooding: heavy rain fall Snow melting Hurricanes Human based: Dams Destruction of wetlands (natural flood protection) Pavement GROUND WATER Porosity: is a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material. High= gravel

Low=clay GROUNDWATER Permeability: is a measure of the ability of a porous material (rock, or sediment) to allow fluids to pass through it. In other words how quickly water passes through open spaces (pores). ZONES OF GROUNDWATER Zone of Aeration: Space

between Earths surface and water table, spaces or pores filled with air. (unsaturated zone) ZONES OF GROUNDWATER Zone of Saturation : All pores are filled with water. Water table: upper surface or start of saturation zone GROUND WATER Aquifer: is an underground layer

of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (sandstone, limestone) GROUND WATER Aquitard: is a zone within the earth that restricts the flow of groundwater from one aquifer to another. (shale) WELLS Ordinary well: water is pumped to surface from below the

water table Artesian well: water flows from far away, no pumping needed

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