Agile Acquisition Creating an Effective Agile Acquisition Ecosystem
Agile Acquisition Creating an Effective Agile Acquisition Ecosystem (Part 1- Contracting) Makoto P. Braxton Matthew R. Kennedy, PhD Disclaimer The view, opinions, and/or findings contained in this material are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Government position, policy, or decision, unless designated by other documentation References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or
service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring This material is furnished on an "as-is" basis. The author makes no warranties of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to any matter including, but not limited to, warranty of fitness for purpose or merchantability, exclusivity, or results obtained from use of the material Overview Agile Overview Agile Acquisition Overview Agile Ecosystem Example Agile Acquisition Ecosystem (Contracting) Measuring Value
Agile Overview Benefits of Agile Source: Version One 2016 Agile Manifesto The foundational document for Agile software development Signed by 17 software developers in Feb 2001 Core Values Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan http://agilemanifesto.org/ Scrum SCRUM is a proven framework for delivering value using agile methods and practices It also provides actionable, artifacts, roles, and activities which can be measured and analyzed Key stakeholder Manages the backlog (Requirements) Responsible for selecting items that provide
continuous value Removes impediments Coach for the team Process owner Cross-functional Self-organizing Self-Managing
Agile Acquisition Overview Agile Acquisition Definition The term agile acquisition means acquisition using agile or iterative development Acquisition pursuant to a method for delivering multiple, rapid, incremental capabilities to the user for operational use, evaluation, and feedback not exclusively linked to any single, proprietary method or process; and Involves (A) the incremental development and fielding of capabilities, commonly called spirals, spins, or sprints, which can be measured in a few weeks or
months; and (B) continuous participation and collaboration by users, testers, and requirements authorities. - NDAA 2018, SEC. 874. Agile Acquisition Definition (Abridged) Deliver rapid iterative and incremental value based on continual user feedback Agile Ecosystem Acquisition Ecosystem A connection of functional units* that interact as a system to deliver value
Contracting Finance /Budget Prgm Mgmt. Engineering *The functional units may vary based on the environment. Growth of the Traditional Culture Engineering Contracting
Management Budget/ Finance Training Working College Information Barrier Growth of the Traditional Culture (Contracting) Approach: Contract for concrete deliverables
Success: Delivery of contract requirements Contracting Training Contracting Working Contracting College 126.96.36.199 Nuts, almonds, shelled. Shelled almond pieces shall be of the small piece size classification and shall be U.S. No. 1 Pieces of the U.S. Standards for Grades
of Shelled Almonds. A minimum of 95 percent, by weight, of the pieces shall pass through a 4/16-inch diameter round hole screen and not more than 5 percent, by weight, shall pass through a 2/16-inch diameter round hole screen. The shelled almonds shall be coated with an approved food grade antioxidant and shall be of the latest season's crop. Growth of the Traditional Culture (Budget/Finance) Approach: Measure Execution Against Plan Success: Correct Color, Year, Amount (CYA) Training Working
Budget / Finance Budget / Finance Budget / Finance College Growth of the Traditional Culture (Management) Management
Training Approach: Manage by Phase Success: Conformance to a Plan Management Working Management College Growth of the Traditional Culture (Engineering) Approach: Develop by Phase Success: Conformance to Specifications Engineering
Training Engineering Working Engineering College Perfect Alignment of Traditional Models Where is the iterative and incremental value? Where is the continual feedback? Required Assumptions (Traditional
Model) 1. We know ALL of the requirements upfront 2. Time Stops The average ACAT I development programs develop schedules for five years, lasting from Milestones B to C. (DSB, 2018) Cell Phone Example June 1, 2013 Galaxy S4 active Galaxy S4 Active January 1, 2018 (~53 months later)
OS Android 4.4 Processor 1.9 GHz Quad-Core (4-cores) Storage Up to 64GB RAM 2GB Display
5 Inches (1920 x 1080) Sensors Multi-touch capacitive touchscreen proximity sensor Battery 10 hrs video playback The average ACAT I development programs develop schedules for five years, lasting from Milestones B to C. (DSB, 2018) Results
Galaxy S4 Active Galaxy S8 Plus OS Android 4.4 Android 8.0 Processor 1.9 GHz Quad-Core (4cores) Storage Up to 64GB
2.35GHz Quad + 1.9GHz Quad (8-cores) Up to 256GB RAM 2GB Display 5 Inches (1920 x 1080) Sensors Multi-touch capacitive touchscreen
Fingerprint sensor Hall sensor 18 hrs video playback Agile Changes How We Define Value Specifications Conformance to Conformance to Correct Color/ Year/Amount a Plan a Contract Engineering Contracting Management Training
Budget / Finance Increment n Engineering Contracting Management Working Budget / Finance Feedback
Engineering College Information Barrier Contracting Management Budget / Finance Example Agile Ecosystem
Contracting Requirements Operate and maintain a system-of-systems, comprised of over 90 servers, geographically distributed databases, and 14* applications (desktop and web based) that support the agencies core mission The systems are tightly coupled, in that an update to one system may require complimentary updates to 1+ other systems Contain highly sensitive data including personally identifiable information (PII) and range from legacy (15+ years old) applications/architectures and new applications/architectures (< 5-years new) * 4 Applications Selected for New Contract Model
Contract Background Executed through a series of iterations on a BPA over a 2-year period Total Award $13M All development was completed by the vendor All contracts required the vendor to conform to the Scrum Process (Backlogs, Sprint planning, etc.) All orders were executed with the same: Systems Federal Employees Vendor (4 of 5 Iterations) Progression of Contracting Actions Agile Facade: Remove traditional terminology
(PM, Requirements, etc.) and add agile terminology (Scrum Master, User Stories, etc.) AGILE contracting: Let multiple short contracts/actions to fulfil a given capability Agile CONTRACT: Provide freedom within a given contract to change requirements Agile Contracting Journey Agile Facade AGILE Contracting Expect:
Low Requirements Flexibility Delays Due to Contracting Actions Use When: Immature Agile Processes Low Government Involvement Teams are New to Agile Agile CONTRACT Expect: High Requirements Flexibility Little/No Contract Related Delays Use When: Mature/Managed Agile Processes
High Government Involvement (Daily) Teams are Skilled Agile Practitioners FFP - Release Requirement: Upgrade a large legacy application to be 508 compliant in one release. The deliverables were fixed at contract start so there was no flexibility after contract award Key Facts: Cost: $1.2M Duration: 9-Months Contract Modifications: 1 FFP User Story Requirement: Develop a fixed set of User Stories for a software release. The government could determine NOT to execute a user story (provided work had not
started) but could not add user stories Key Facts: Total Cost: $234,419.84 Low User Story: $850.82 High User Story: $71,314.08 Contract Modifications: 1 FFP User Story (Exchangeable) Requirement: Develop a fixed number of user stories over the course of the contract This was rolled into a larger CLIN so accurately
calculating the cost is not possible Key Facts: Cost: $N/A Low User Story: N/A High User Story: N/A Contract Modifications: N/A FFP Complexity Levels Requirement: Develop user stories based on contractually defined complexity levels until the not to exceed (NTE) amount was reached or additional funds were applied
The PWS contained complexity levels using Representative User Stories and when new backlog items (requirements) arose, the new requirement(s) were assigned a complexity level at the contracted cost Key Facts: Complexity Levels Low: $3,300.00 Medium: $9,300.00 High: $14,500.00 Very High: $22,000.00 FFP Complexity Levels
v2 Requirement: Develop user stories based on contractually defined complexity levels until the not to exceed (NTE) amount was reached or additional funds were applied The PWS contained complexity levels using Representative User Stories and when new backlog items (requirements) arose, the new requirement(s) were assigned a complexity level at the contracted cost Key Facts: Complexity Levels
Extra Low: $2,205 Low: $3,383 Medium: $9,532 High: $14,863 Very High: $22,550 FFP Teams Requirement: Supply agile teams to deliver value within contractually defined technical constraints Initial contract cost was 10% less than the previous approach for the same capacity Teams are required to be cross-functional Each team member was required to have a minimum of two skill sets (Developer and tester, Technical writer and business analyst, etc.) Specific skillsets were required per team but the vendor proposed the overall team structure(s)
Benefits of the Team Approach Enables stable teams 2 x as Productive Enables multidisciplinary teams Little contract overheard to start a new team Manage at the team level versus people (LH) level Low contract monitoring overhead, the focus is shifted to helping deliver value Success Factors Contracting Communicate and educate the CO, legal counsel, and contract specialist Allow the flexibility (contract type) and time for
transition between the two approaches Do not transition to agile in a day, allow for flexibility Success Factors PM / Engineering Modify Existing Engineering Processes Change Reporting/Metrics (How and What is Reported) Engauge in multiple levels of training Realign staff and Change Existing Roles Project Manager Schedulers COR Add New Roles Product Owner Scrum Master Agile Coach
Many, Many, More Measuring Value Measuring Value Traditional: Value is defined at contract award Agile: Value is selected/defined by the Product Owner (PO) prior to each Sprint Measuring Value per Sprint Step 1: The Product Owner (PO) determines the highest priority user stories from the Backlog and defines Acceptance Criteria for the Sprint Step 2:
The team delivers the capability (value) in the Three typical outcomes at the Sprint Review: Sprint 1) The user story is accepted by the PO as it meets the acceptance criteria 2) The user is rejected by the PO because it DOES NOT MEET the acceptance criteria story Step 3: The PO either accepts or rejects the user stories specified at the start of the sprint and this may be noted as a vendor performance (quality) at the sprint review/demo based on the acceptance
issue criteria 3) The user story is rejected by the PO but MEETS the acceptance criteria which does NOT reflect on the vendor performance since this was a requirements specification issue (Rare). Step 2 Step 1 Step 3 Increased Transparency The delivered value is measured every Sprint (2-weeks) Complete transparency into the work being performed Our Current Agile Ecosystem
PO Feedback User Feedback Release Plan PO Direction PO = Product Owner Sprint Plan Release Plan Sprint Plan
PO Feedback Release PO Feedback Sprint Plan PO Feedback Risk of Only Changing One Piece of the Ecosystem How will the contract support this engineering
approach? How will the PM be able to track progress? Risk of Only Changing One Piece of the Ecosystem How will the traditional PM track the progress without specific deliverables? How will the traditional engineering process ensure value is being delivered based on user feedback? What processes are in place to measure value? Ecosystem The entire ecosystem needs to continually work together to enable an effective agile acquisition! Contracting
Finance /Budget Prgm Mgmt. Engineering Makoto P. Braxton Makoto P. Braxton is the Division Chief and Chief Contracting Officer of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) Support Division within the Office of Acquisitions Management, Contracts and Grants. The ASPR Support Division provides contracting support in response to national emergency declarations under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. The ASPR Support Division also provides operational contracting support to the entire ASPR organization, including the Office of Emergency Management and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority,
among others Makoto has over 12 years of contracting experience, 9 of which have been with the Federal Government. Previously, Makoto has worked for the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (within the Department of the Treasury). Makoto holds a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from the University of Arizona and is Level III Certified in Contracting in accordance with the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act, as well as Federal Acquisition Certification in Contracting Level III Certified Matthew R. Kennedy, PhD Matthew R. Kennedy is a Senior IT Program Manager and Contracting Officer Representative (COR) at the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC). Formerly, Matt was a Program Manager at the Army's Program Executive Office - Enterprise Information Systems (PEO-EIS) and
was a Professor of Software Engineering at Defense Acquisition University (DAU) where he specialized in agile acquisition. Matt served as the Associate Director of Engineering at the National Cancer Institutes Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology and served in the U.S. Air Force as a network intelligence analyst. He has worked both inside and outside of the government on various IT projects over the last 18 years Matthew holds a Bachelors in Computer Science, and a masters and PhD in Computer Science and Software Engineering from Auburn University. He is Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) Level III certified in Program Management, Systems Engineering, and Information Technology (IT) Contact: [email protected]
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