Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD

Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD

Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD Response in Domestic Livestock USDA APHIS Authorities Adapted from the FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD Response in Domestic Livestock This Presentation

Definitions Laws, regulations Relevance of wildlife Roles and responsibilities of authorities during an FAD response FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 2 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Definitions Wild animal: (OIE) an animal that has a phenotype unaffected by human

selection and lives independent of direct human supervision or control Wildlife: (APHIS) all free-ranging animals, including native and exotic wildlife species, as well as feral domestic animals FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 3 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Definitions contd Feral: domestic animals not confined

Wildlife reservoir: free-ranging species living as a potential source of infection/infestation Vector: any living organism that can carry disease agents Biological transmission: disease agent transfer from host to susceptible animal Mechanical transmission: disease agent transfer from host to susceptible animal via external body parts FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 4 USDA APHIS and CFSPH

USDA APHIS Authorities for Responding to an FAD Outbreak in Domestic Livestock FAD and Emerging Diseases FAD: animal disease or pest not known to exist in US or territories Emerging disease: change or mutation in pathogenicity, communicability or zoonotic potential to become a threat When livestock outbreak involves wildlife - USDA APHIS and authorities with jurisdiction over wildlife

collaborate FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 6 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Animal Health Protection Act APHIS authority through AHPA Act Enables Secretary of Agriculture to: Prevent, detect, control, eradicate diseases and pests To protect health/welfare, economic interests, environment and commerce

Prohibit or restrict importation, entry, interstate movement Cooperate with agencies to control animal diseases FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 7 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Code of Federal Regulations 9 CFR 71.2: Issue rule governing quarantine, movement of diseased animals, poultry 9 CFR 71.3: Prohibited movement of

diseased animals and poultry 9 CFR 53: Certain communicable diseases of livestock or poultry 9 CFR 161: Standards for AVs and revocation of accreditation FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 8 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidance for Veterinary Services VS Memorandum 573.1 USDA, APHIS, VS Animal Health Policy in Relation to Wildlife Work with wildlife entities with primary

authority and responsibility Support disease eradication Movement, testing requirements Herd plans Emergency response plans to keep wildlife and livestock apart FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 9 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidance for VS contd State fish and wildlife agencies have primary authority and responsibility

VS may implement actions under certain conditions Secretary of Ag will consult with State authorities Collaborative relationships FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 10 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Relevance of Wildlife in an FAD Outbreak in Domestic Livestock

or Poultry Epidemiological Factors Interactions between host, agent, environment Agent: range, resistance, affinity, dose, mode of transmission Host: species, age, immune/nutritional status Environment: housing, care, weather, vector presence FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities

12 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Epidemiological Factors contd Immediately assess wildlife during an FAD Detect cases Understand disease characteristics Identify disease risks Provide information for control Evaluate effectiveness of control and adjust FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities

13 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Species Susceptibility FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 14 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Species Susceptibility contd

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 15 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Ecological Factors of Wildlife FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 16 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Ecological Factors of Wildlife contd

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 17 USDA APHIS and CFSPH International Trade OIE distinguishes between wildlife infection and domestic infection for some diseases wildlife role in transmission, maintenance of agent

Not all countries will follow OIE guidelines for trade FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 18 USDA APHIS and CFSPH International Trade contd Affected wildlife may not always mean domestic livestock are affected FAD existence in wildlife may make disease-freedom difficult Trade may be affected with FAD

presence in exporting country FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 19 USDA APHIS and CFSPH FAD Detection for Disease Agents For example FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 20

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Roles and Responsibilities in an FAD Outbreak ICS, NIMS, Unified Command Critical to controlling an outbreak Wildlife Cell, Vector Control Group Wildlife and disease management expertise Planning, Operation Sections

Coordinate activities Conducted with appropriate agencies Conducted by skilled personnel FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 22 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Wildlife and Vector Control Personnel Team will vary depending on incident Personnel need wildlife-related experience

Assessing presence of wildlife Assessing potential for disease spread Determining wildlife infection Wildlife surveillance measures Wildlife disease control Implementing prevention measures FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 23 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Role of APHIS Wildlife Services Coordinate with Federal, State partners

SERS, NWDP Primary emergency response contact Group of biologists ready for mobilization in 24-48 hours Receive training, medical clearance, PPE, training drills SERS - Surveillance and Emergency Response System NWDP - National Wildlife Disease Program FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 24

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Role of Livestock Owners/Producers Prevent the introduction of diseases into domestic livestock Prevent the spread of disease to wildlife Fencing barrier create a buffer Wire netting, sealed entry points prevent direct contact FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 25

USDA APHIS and CFSPH Resources for Livestock Owners/Producers Biosecurity for the Birds http://healthybirds.aphis.usda.gov Center for Food Security and Public Health (CFSPH) disease factsheets http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity http://www.aphis.usda.gov/fadprep USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage /index.shtml FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 26 USDA APHIS and CFSPH For More Information FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife Management and Vector Control for an FAD Response in Domestic Livestock http://www.aphis.usda.gov/fadprep

Wildlife Management and Vector Control web-based training module Coming soon FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 27 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidelines Content Authors (CFSPH) Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH, DACVPM

Nicole Seda, BS Meghan Blankenship, BS Heather Allen, PhD, MPA Contributor (USDA) Jonathan Zack, DVM FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 28 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidelines Content Reviewers (USDA)

Randall Levings, DVM, MS Randall Crom, DVM Michael Messenger, PhD Michael David MS, VMD, MPH Wildlife Disease Steering Committee Subject Matter Experts

Claudio L. Afonso Samantha Gibbs, DVM, PhD D. Scott McVey, DVM, PhD, DACVM David Suarez, DVM FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Wildlife, Vector Control - Authorities 29 USDA APHIS and CFSPH Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was

by the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University through funding from the USDA APHIS Veterinary Services PPT Authors: Abbey Smith, Student Intern; Janice Mogan, DVM Reviewers: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Heather Allen, PhD, MPA

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