NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS There are a few general

NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS There are a few general

NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS There are a few general rules that apply when naming ionic compounds. 1. Most ionic compounds are also called salts. 2. Most ionic compounds exist as solids and many dissolve to form aqueous solutions. 3. An ionic compound is made up of a metal and a nonmetal; metals are located on the left side of the periodic table and nonmetals are on the right side. 4. The cation (positive ion) is written first followed by the anion (negative ion). 5. Before naming compounds, you should first memorize the individual cations and anions. Writing Chemical Formulas 1. The charge of the individual ions in a salt should add up to zero, the overall charge of the compound. For example NaCl is composed of Na+ ions and Cl- ions. For every one sodium ion you need one chloride ion (+1) + (-1) = 0 Ba2+ and N3- : You need 3 (+2 ) Barium ions to cancel out the 2 (-3) nitride ions so the overall charge of the compound is zero. 2. The individual ions should add up to the overall charge of the polyatomic ion. What is the charge of Mn in MnO4-? 1 Mn + 4 O = -1 so 1(Mn) + 4 (-2) = -1 so Mn - 8 = -1 so Mn = +7

Nomenclature of binary ionic compounds Symbol Element Root Br Cl F H I N O P S Bromine Chlorine Fluorine Hydrogen Iodine Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur Brom

Chlor Fluor Hydr Iod Nitr Ox Phosph Sulf Anion Symbol BrClFHIN-3 O-2 P-3 S-2 Anion Name Bromide Chloride Fluoride Hydride Iodide Nitride Oxide Phosphide Sulfide Nomenclature of binary ionic Name the metal then the

root of the nonmetal + ide ending: compounds NaCl Sodium chloride BaCl2 H2S Hydrogen sulfide Mg3N2 NaF Sodium fluoride K2O Barium chloride Magnesium nitride Potassium oxide Notice that the cation is always mentioned first and then the anion. Notice that the anion always ends in -ide Notice that the number of elements in the compound is not mentioned in the name. Name the following ionic compounds: Na2O K 2S CaCl2 AgCl MgBr2 AlH3 AlN ZnI2

Ba3As2 Li3P Nomenclature of binary ionic compounds Answers: Na2O = sodium oxide MgBr2 nitride K2S = potassium sulfide = magnesium bromide Ba3As2 = barium arsenide chloride AgCl = silver chloride hydride ZnI2 = zinc iodide AlN = aluminum CaCl2 = calcium AlH3 = aluminum Li3P = lithium phosphide Nomenclature of binary ionic compound

Some polyatomic anions that you must know: NO3- = nitrate NO2- = nitrite SO4 2 - = sulfate PO43- = phosphate phosphite SO32- = sulfite PO33- = CO32- = carbonate HCO31- = hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate OH- = hydroxide C2H3O2- = acetate CN- = cyanide C2O42- = oxalate Nomenclature of binary ionic compound Naming salts composed of the polyatomic ions is the same as with the monatomic anions. Metal name then polyatomic name. NaOH sodium hydroxide

H2SO4 hydrogen sulfate Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate CsNO2 cesium nitrite Sometimes there is a common name: KHCO3 potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium bicarbonate Note: the polyatomic anions must be memorized. Name the following ionic compounds: NaHCO3 K2SO3 MgSO4 KCN H2PO4 Nomenclature of binary ionic compound Answers: NaHCO3 = sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate K2SO3 = potassium sulfite MgSO4

= magnesium sulfate KCN = potassium cyanide H2PO4 = hydrogen phosphate Ca(OH)2 = calcium hydroxide NH4NO3 = ammonium nitrate Zn(NO3)2 = zinc nitrate Li3PO4 = lithium phosphate Early Names of Elements Present Name Symbol

Former Name Antimony Copper Gold Iron Lead Mercury Potassium Silver Sodium Tin Tungsten Sb Cu Au Fe Pb Hg K Ag Na Sn W Stibium Cuprum Aurum

Ferrum Plumbum Hydrargyrum Kalium Argentum Natrium Stannum Wolfram Nomenclature of binary ionic compound The previous examples only named type 1 or fixed oxidation state cations. When naming type 2 or variable oxidation state cations the rules change. CuOH copper(I) hydroxide Fe(NO3)3 iron(III) nitrate CuSO4 copper(II) sulfate Sn(NO2)4 tin(IV) nitrite Sometimes a common name exists: CuOH cuprous hydroxide Fe(NO3)3 ferric nitrate When naming type 2 cations, the systematic method (IUPAC) requires the use of roman numerals after the elemental name to represent the oxidation state of the cation. The common name uses the ic ending for the higher oxidation state and ous ending for the lower oxidation state. Many times the old latin or greek name is used as the root. Name the following ionic compounds: CuHCO3 FeSO3 CuSO4 Cr(CN)3

Cr(PO4)2 Nomenclature of binary ionic compound Answers: CuHCO3 = copper(I) hydrogen carbonate or cuprous bicarbonate FeSO3 = iron(II) sulfite or ferrous sulfite CuSO4 = copper(II) sulfate or cupric sulfate Cr(CN)3 = chromium(III) cyanide Cr(PO4)2 = chromium (VI) phosphate Sn(OH)2 = tin(II) hydroxide or stannous hydroxide W(NO2)5 = tungsten(V) nitrite Ti(CO3)2 = titanium(IV) carbonate CoPO4 = cobalt(III) phosphate or cobaltic phosphate PRACTICE PROBLEMS Below the formula, give the systematic name for the following compounds. If a common name exist, write it below the systematic name. 1. KBr

potassium bromide 4. CaF3 calcium fluoride 2. BaO 3. Na2O Sodium oxide Barium oxide 5. Cr2S3 6. Ti(NO3)4 Chromium (III) sulfide Titanium (IV) nitrate or titanic nitrate The problem set continues on the next page. PRACTICE PROBLEMS Below the name, write the formula for the following compounds. Lithium chloride b) Aluminum sulfide e) Copper(II) oxide Al3+ S2f) + Cl Li

Al2S3 LiCl Iron(III) chloride i) Calcium bicarbonate l Ca(HCO3)2 FeCl3 Potassium nitrite Potassium sulfate KNO2 Ammonium carbonates s (NH4)2CO3 CuO K2SO4 )Iron(II) phosphate w) Fe3(PO4)2

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