Do it Now: You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between. This is a sharp time, now, a precise time we live no longer in the dusky afternoon when evil mixed itself with good and befuddled the world. Now, by Gods grace, the shining sun is up, and them that fear not light will surely praise it. Questions: 1) Who is the speaker? 2) In which Act is this line spoken? What is the context or situation where this quote takes place? 3) From this quote, what do you learn about the speakers Reputation and Integrity in
The Crucible Year 11 English THINK-PAIR-SHARE 1) What is the difference between reputation and integrity? 2) Why is reputation so important to the people of Salem? What happens if you lose your good reputation (before the witch-hunt)? 3) In what ways is a good reputation in the play similar to the way we think of it today? In what ways is it different? Reputation vs Integrity in The Crucible
There are many characters who are solely concerned with their reputation among their community. These include: Rev. Parris Worries he will lose his posting and social standing in Salem, and so willingly goes along with his daughter and nieces charade The girls After being caught dancing in the woods, the girls fear for their reputations and potential branding as witches. They willingly shift the
accusations onto others, in order to preserve their reputations. The conflict of integrity and reputation is a continuous theme throughout The Crucible. Consider the following three characters. John Proctor Elizabeth Proctor Abigail Williams
To what extent does each character value integrity over reputation? What evidence supports this? Write a short answer for each character. The conflict of integrity and reputation is a continuous theme throughout The Crucible. Throughout the play John Proctor struggles with maintaining his reputation. He is ashamed of his past affair with Abigail, which he considers a moral failing. He does not wish for this affair to become public knowledge because it will taint his good name.
However, he is willing to admit to the affair in order to save Elizabeths life, despite the huge cost to his reputation. A man may think God sleeps, but God sees everything, I know it now. I beg you, sir, I beg yousee her what she is. . . . She thinks to dance with me on my wifes grave! And well she might, for I thought of her softly. God help me, I lusted, and there is a promise in such sweat. But it is a whores vengeance. . . . In Act IV he also willingly sacrifices his life rather
than dishonour the other accused by refusing to sign a false statement confessing to witchcraft. In the end, he chose to maintain his personal integrity. Other characters such as Rebecca Nurse and Giles Corey also choose personal integrity over reputation Rebecca Nurse Is accused of witchcraft, and refuses to confess to save herself. Giles Corey Refuses to name and endanger the source of his
accusations against Putnam; is executed for it. Why do you think Miller included this internal conflict in the play? Discuss this with your elbow partner for 1 minute. Millers inclusion of this conflict reflects the feelings of those targeted by the House Un-American Activities Committee during the McCarthy era. Those summoned to testify had their livelihoods threatened. Many cooperated with HUAC, confirming the names of those who were suspected to be Communists.
Although this ensured their own livelihood and reputation remained intact, this led to destroyed friendships and for some, an infamous legacy. The Hollywood Ten were a group of filmmakers defied HUAC by refusing to testify. They were branded as Communist sympathisers and were blacklisted in Hollywood. John Proctor represents those who refused to testify in the HUAC hearings. READ ALOUD ACT III
Page 80 Character hot-seat activity The class will be divided into 5 groups. Each group will be assigned a character. Each person in your group is going to take a turn in the hot seat role-playing that character. To prepare for this role you must: 1) Use the text and your notes to learn everything about your character. This includes their arc in The Crucible, their relationships with other characters, their personality traits, reactions to events and so on. 2) Think of potential questions that may be asked of that character. For example, if you are John Proctor, you may be asked why you entered an affair with Abigail. If you are Elizabeth, it may be a question of why you lied to Judge Danforth in Act Three. 3) Individual task: Think of at least questions you would like to each of the other four characters that are in the
classroom. Think of questions that will genuinely help you with your understanding of that character (i.e. avoid questions like what is your favourite food? Ask a question like how would you react if) Possible questions to ask What three words would you use to describe [another character in the play]? How did you feel when.?
Why did you.? Knowing how the witch trials ended, is there anything you would have done differently? In your new groups: Assign a time-keeper. Ensure everyone in the group speaks once for at 2 minutes.
When answering questions in the hot-seat, provide justification for your answer. If you learn something about a character that you were unaware of before, you may record this on your character sheet (as long it is true to the source material!) Written response activity: Compare two characters from the play (e.g. Elizabeth and John Proctor; Parris and
Hale). To what extent does their value of personal integrity differ from each other? What evidence in the text supports this? Write a 100-150 word response paragraph. Do it Now: True or False: 1) Mary Warren is executed after being accused of witchcraft. 2)
We burn a hot fire here; it melts down all concealment This line was spoken by Danforth. 3) Mary summoned a black crow to threaten Abigail and the other girls. Do it Now: True or False: 1)Mary Warren is executed after being accused of witchcraft. False. She takes back her confession that she and the other girls were pretending, and instead accuses Proctor. 2)We burn a hot fire here; it melts down all concealment This line is spoken by
Danforth. True. Danforth is referring to the courts interrogation. It is also an allusion to the title of the play. 3) Mary summons a black crow to threaten Abigail and the other girls. Doubly False. She cannot summon anything, not even a yellow bird. Hypocrisy in The Crucible Hypocrisy is used to show the weaknesses of many characters, particular those who are most concerned with their reputation. Hypocritical behaviour is mostly expressed by characters who represent the authoritative positions in Salem, such as the Court. Miller is commentating on the abuses and lack of accountability for
those in power, who were condemning others in the name of God. Reverend Parris is considered to be an incredibly hypocritical character. Would you agree with this statement? Why/why not? Hypocrisy in The Crucible Reverend Parris Likes to present himself as a pious man. Criticises others such as John Proctor, for supposedly engaging in un-Christian behaviour, and preaches sermons about damnation.
I am not a preaching farmer with a book under my arm; I am a graduate of Harvard College. (Act I) This is despite the fact that he is very greedy, and looks down on others. For example, his getting rid of the pewter candles in the church and replacing them with golden ones. Danforth is another character focused on his own reputation and the
reputation of the court. As a judge, he declares that God damns all liars (Act III p. 97), even though he is part of a procedure that is forcing accused people into making false confessions. He also tries to persuade Proctor into making a false confession so that the trials are seen as legitimate. Claims to be trialling people fairly, when he does not accept any form of challenge to the court; he rejects any defence for those accused. Some of his quotes can be described as verbal irony, as they contradict other statements or actions that he makes in the play. Abigail Williams
Calls Elizabeth Proctor a liar (Act I), despite the fact that she herself is a continuous liar. Claims that she is Gods finger and has a holy purpose, but she is willingly putting people to death to save herself. She also steals her uncles life savings and runs away. Oh Mary, this is a black art to change your shape! No, I cannot, I cannot stop my mouth; its Gods work I do. (Act III) Group Read-aloud task
You will soon form groups and perform a read-aloud with your group members. When reading through the text, please consider the following questions: i) What dramatic techniques (e.g. foreshadowing/dramatic irony) are being used? Take a note of examples. ii) What themes can you identify? How are these reflected in the characters/events in this scene? (Consider themes such as power, hypocrisy and reputation) READ ALOUD
ACT IV Pages 107 119 (until Hathorne appears) Written response activity: Compare two characters from the play (e.g. Elizabeth and John Proctor; Parris and Hale). To what extent do their ideas of integrity differ from each other? What evidence in the text supports this? Write a response paragraph (100-150 words). The Widening Circle of Witchcraft
Tituba E.g. Sarah Good E.g. Nurse & Burroughs John Proctor, Giles What are the consequences of these trials in The Crucible? o Many members of the community were executed, including respected individuals like Rebecca Nurse. o As a result, there was low morale among the rest of the
community. o Some victims farms were left abandoned and ruined. Families were broken. o Miller states that this event lead to the end of theocratic rule in New England. In other words, it led to a breakdown of society. INDIVIDUALISM VS SOCIETY Puritan society placed strong emphasis on community and collectiveness, developed as a means of surviving religious persecution in Europe, followed by adjusting in the New World. Had a strict and rigid social order
Anyone who exercises too much personal freedoms was seen as a threat to the community. The fault of this social order is exposed by the mass hysteria and ensuing persecution of its citizens in the witch trials. Society and Order in The Crucible is represented primarily by Judge Danforth. He values order, and a strict adherence to theocratic law. Has what can be described as a black and white worldview.
Any attempts to question the court is seen as an affront to the establishment. E.g. The signed petition to save Elizabeth, Rebecca and Martha. You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between. This is a sharp time, now, a precise timewe live no longer in the dusky afternoon when evil
mixed itself with good and befuddled the world. Now, by God's grace, the shining sun is up, and them that fear not light will surely praise it. John Proctor is respected by his neighbours, but he is eventually persecuted due to his individualistic nature. This nature is alluded to in Act II, when he is questioned by Reverend Hale about his Christian values.
This continues in Act III when he speaks out against the court. This culminates in his being accused and his declaration that in Salem, God is dead. In Act IV, he has the choice to sacrifice his personal integrity so that the witch trials can be proved to be legitimate. In his defiance to sign his confession Giles Corey Another character who is punished for going against the collective.
Openly criticises Putnam for using the witch trials to further his own agenda Refuses to name the source for his accusation against Putnam is killed for it. The House Un-American Activities Commission Many people suspected of Communist ties were interrogated on little or no proof. Those summoned were threatened to report on their friends or colleagues or
risk criminal charges. The Hollywood Ten were a group of filmmakers and actors who refused to testify before the Committee. As a result, they were blacklisted and jailed. Many peoples livelihoods were ruined and relationships , even after the blacklist ended. Do it Now: where she walks, the crowd will part like the sea for Israel.
Questions: 1) Who is the speaker, and who are they referring to? 2) In which Act is this line spoken? What is happening in the scene? 3) What is the significance of this quote? Do it Now: where she walks, the crowd will part like the sea for Israel. Questions: 1) Who is the speaker, and who are they referring to? Elizabeth Proctor, who is referring to Abigail. 2) In which Act and scene is this line spoken? Act II, in the Proctor household. Elizabeth and John are discussing the events in Salem.
3) What is the significance of this quote? It signifies that Abigail has gained power and status in Salem. The townsfolk make way for her out of fear and/or admiration. The quote also contains a biblical reference to Moses parting of the Red Sea, which implies that Abigail is regarded as a source of divine power. Mob mentality in The Crucible Year 11 English Mass hysteria A phenomenon where an irrational fear or behaviour is
spread throughout a large group. Throughout The Crucible hysteria regarding witchcraft spreads through the community of Salem leading to false accusations and deaths of innocents. In the play, the girls display symptoms of hysteria when they are in the presence of those accused of witchcraft, acting as though they are under a spell.
Their behaviour caused panic throughout the community. Many citizens began to imagine signs on witchcraft in their neighbours. https://youtu.be/IpLXABRiBxg?t=2608 Present day examples of mass hysteria Tanzania laughing epidemic of 1962 Three students in a boarding school began laughing uncontrollably in class and couldnt stop. This eventually spread to other students, causing the school to close in response.
When the students went home to their villages, their laughter spread to other villagers. Some believe the laughing fits were caused by stress; others believe it was a case of culture shock (as students experiences at the boarding school was different from their homes). Strawberries with Sugar virus of 2006 Over 300 students in various Portuguese schools experienced a virus that affected their breathing and caused them to break out in rashes. The symptoms of this illness was similar to a fictional virus that was depicted on a popular teen soap opera. Authorities determined that it was a case of mass hysteria among the students. Clown sightings of 2016 Several people across America (and in various countries around the world) reported seeing people dressed as clowns in the woods in their neighbourhoods. Many believe that these sightings were imagined and fuelled by coulrophobia* and social media. *Note: Coulrophobia is a fear of clowns.
Mob Mentality When people are influenced by those around them, and adopt their characteristics and behaviour. This action tends to be fuelled by emotion rather than rationality. Stems from a desire to belong. Can manifest into an Us vs Them mindset
Often those who do not want to be categorised as them join the mob As the mob grows, others may join as they trust in the majority Mob Mentality If everyone is thinking alike, then no one is thinking. - George S. Patton. Think-Pair-Share
Have you ever acted differently when part of a group (E.g. at a sports match, or in a social circle)? To what extent do you believe you were influenced by the other people in the group? Have you witnessed someones behavior change because of the group they were a part of? Can you think of other literary/real-life examples of mob mentality? Mob Mentality In The Crucible, many characters join the mob for their own benefit: Putnam sees an opportunity to get rid of rivals and take their forfeited land. Parris wishes to protect his reputation. Mary wants to save herself from accusations of witchcraft, so she retracts her
statement that the girls are lying. Hale begins to feel doubt, but still goes along with the majority. Those that do not join in the mob become targets themselves. E.g. John and Elizabeth Proctor, Giles. What are the consequences of this behavior in The Crucible? o Many members of the community were executed, including respected individuals like Rebecca Nurse. o As a result, there was low morale among the rest of the community. o Some victims farms were left abandoned and ruined. Families were broken. o Miller states that this event lead to the end of theocratic rule in New England.
In other words, it led to a breakdown of society. Group Research Activity While researching your story, answer the following questions: Why is this event described as a witch hunt? Who were the perpetrators and what were the motivations behind their accusations? Why do you think the mob believed their position so strongly? What caused this incident to escalate and why? What were the consequences of this incident for the targeted party, the accusers and the community? What parallels can you identify in this story with events and characters in The Crucible?
Group Activity Stories: 1. A rap star from South Korea, Daniel Lee (aka Tablo) was accused by an anonymous online community of forging his academic credentials from Stanford University. Although he and the staff at Stanford tried to prove his credentials were real, this made his harassment worst. Eventually the South Korean police were tasked with investigating the legitimacy of his academic history. 2. Shortly after Barrack Obama was elected as President of the United States, a rumour began that he was not a US citizen and that his birth certificate was forged. Although he produced his birth certificate, the rumour continued to spread. Some people began to doctor false evidence against Obama to prove these rumours were true. 3. In 1989 five teenaged men were accused of sexually assaulting a woman in Central Park in New York City. Although the five men expressed their innocence at first, they were coerced into confessing to the crime, and were sentenced to jail. It was believed that the men were targeted because of their race. Later, they were exonerated
and the true perpetrator was found. 4. In 2016, a rumour began online that several US politicians were part of a child trafficking ring, which was operating out of the basement of the Comet Ping Pong pizza restaurant. Despite the lack of evidence in this claim, this rumour led to a campaign of harassment against the owners and employees of the restaurant. Group Activity Stories: 5. While on a camping trip in the outback, young infant Azaria Chamberlain disappeared from her familys campsite. Her mother Lindy Chamberlain insisted that a dingo had killed her. However, because Lindy did not behave like a grieving parent in front of the media, many of the public suspected that she was lying and that she had killed her child.
6. In 2012, several primary school students were killed in the Sandy Hook mass shooting in the US. Several people believe that this shooting never took place and that the grieving parents were paid actors, as part of a government conspiracy. As a result, many of the victims families had been targeted by conspiracy theorists. SOURCES https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/how-miller-compare-sa lem-witch-trials-house-un-254111 https://www.cosa.k12.or.us/sites/default/files/materials/events/ 28-6_crucible_pt.pdf
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