Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Lecture Presentation by

Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Lecture Presentation by

Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Lecture Presentation by Lee Ann Frederick University of Texas at Arlington 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton Learning Outcomes 8-1 Identify the bones that form the pectoral girdle, their functions, and their superficial features. 8-2 Identify the bones of the upper limbs, their functions, and their superficial features. 8-3 Identify the bones that form the pelvic girdle, their functions, and their superficial features.

8-4 Identify the bones of the lower limbs, their functions, and their superficial features. 8-5 Summarize sex differences and age-related 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton The limbs The supportive girdles 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-1 An Anterior View of the Appendicular Skeleton (Part 1 of 2). SKELETAL SYSTEM AXIAL SKELETON

80 206 APPENDICULAR SKELETON 126 (see Figure 71) Pectoral girdles Upper limbs Pelvic girdle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Clavicle

2 Scapula 2 Humerus 2 Radius 2 Ulna 2 Carpal bones

16 Metacarpal bones 10 Phalanges 28 Hip bone 2 4 60 2 Figure 8-1 An Anterior View of the Appendicular Skeleton (Part 2 of 2).

Lower limbs 60 Femur 2 Patella 2 Tibia 2 Fibula 2

Tarsal bones 14 Metatarsal 10 bones Phalanges 28 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Pectoral Girdle Also called shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement Consists of: Two clavicles

Two scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-2a The Right Clavicle.

Scapula Clavicle Jugular notch a The position of the clavicle within the pectoral girdle, anterior view. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-2b The Right Clavicle. Acromial end LATERAL Facet for articulation with acromion 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sternal

end MEDIAL b Superior view of the right clavicle. Figure 8-2c The Right Clavicle. Sternal facet Acromial end LATERAL Cunoid tubercle Costal tuberosity MEDIAL

Sternal end c Inferior view of the right clavicle. Stabilizing ligaments attach to the conoid tubercle and the costal tuberosity. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and collarbone Anterior surface depression is subscapular fossa 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Structures of the scapula Body has three sides 1. 2. 3. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Superior border Medial border (vertebral border) Lateral border (axillary border) 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Body has three corners Superior angle Inferior angle Lateral angle (head) The scapular head

Holds glenoid cavity Which articulates with humerus To form shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Processes of the glenoid cavity Coracoid process Anterior, smaller Acromion Posterior, larger Articulates with clavicle At the acromioclavicular joint 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-3a The Right Scapula. Acromion

Coracoid process Superior border Superior angle Lateral angle Subscapular fossa Body Lateral border Medial border Inferior angle a Anterior view

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-3b The Right Scapula. Supraglenoid tubercle Acromion Spine Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Lateral border Inferior angle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

b Lateral view Figure 8-3c The Right Scapula. Supraspinous fossa Coracoid process Acromion Superior border Neck Spine Infraspinous fossa Body

Medial border Lateral border Inferior angle c 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Posterior features of the scapula Scapular spine Ridge across posterior surface of body Separates two regions 1. 2. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Upper Limbs Consist of: The arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) 1 bone, the humerus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper arm bone Articulates with the pelvic girdle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs

The Humerus Tubercles of the proximal epiphysis Separated by the intertubercular groove Greater tubercle Lateral Forms tip of shoulder Lesser tubercle Anterior, medial 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Head Rounded, articulating surface Contained within joint capsule Anatomical neck Margin of joint capsule Surgical neck The narrow metaphysis

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus The shaft Deltoid tuberosity A bulge in the shaft Attaches deltoid muscle Radial groove For radial nerve Posterior to deltoid tuberosity 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus The distal epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles For muscle attachment

Condyle of the humerus Articulates with ulna and radius 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Articular regions of the condyle Trochlea Coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa Articulates with ulna Capitulum Radial fossa Articulates with radius 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-4a The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint. Greater tubercle Head

Lesser tubercle Intertubercular groove Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Shaft Radial fossa Coronoid fossa Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle

Capitulum Trochlea Condyle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. a Anterior surface Figure 8-4b The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint. Head Greater tubercle Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Olecranon fossa Lateral epicondyle

Medial epicondyle Trochlea b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior surface Figure 8-4c The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint. Humerus Medial epicondyle Head of radius Trochlea Capitulum Coronoid process of ulna Radial notch of ulna

c Elbow joint, anterior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-4d The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint. Humerus Medial epicondyle Olecranon fossa Olecranon Trochlea of humerus Ulna Head of radius d Elbow joint, posterior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of two long bones

1. Ulna (medial) 2. Radius (lateral) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna The olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus The coronoid process Inferior lip of trochlear notch 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna Articulations with the humerus Forearm extended Olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed Coronoid process enters coronoid fossa 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna Other articulations Radial notch Articulates with head of radius Forms proximal radioulnar joint Ulnar head Prominent styloid process Attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna Interosseous membrane A fibrous sheet Connects lateral margin of ulnar shaft to radius 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Radius Lateral bone of forearm Disk-shaped radial head above the neck Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps Articulations of the radius Ulnar notch Distal end Articulates with wrist and ulna

Styloid process Stabilizes wrist joint 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-5a The Right Radius and Ulna. Olecranon Radial head Proximal radioulnar joint Neck of radius Radius Ulna Interosseous membrane

Ulnar notch of radius Ulnar head Styloid process of ulna 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Styloid process of radius a Posterior view Figure 8-5b The Right Radius and Ulna. Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial head

Radial notch Neck of radius Ulnar tuberosity Radial tuberosity Radius Ulna Interosseous membrane Distal radioulnar joint Ulnar head Styloid process of radius b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Anterior view Figure 8-5c The Right Radius and Ulna. Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Ulnar tuberosity Ulna c Lateral view of ulna, showing trochlear notch 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs Eight Carpal Bones Four proximal carpal bones

Four distal carpal bones Allow wrist to bend and twist 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Four Proximal Carpal Bones 1. Scaphoid Near styloid process 2. Lunate Medial to scaphoid 3. Triquetrum Medial to lunate

4. Pisiform Anterior to triquetrum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Four Distal Carpal Bones 1. Trapezium Lateral 2. Trapezoid Medial to trapezium 3. Capitate

Largest 4. Hamate Medial, distal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-6 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand. Radius Carpals Ulna Carpals Ulna Radius

Carpals Lunate Scaphoid Scaphoid Pisiform Trapezium Triquetrum Trapezium Trapezoid Hamate Trapezoid I

Capitate I V II Pollex III IV V Metacarpal bones IV III II

Metacarpal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Phalanges Phalanges Proximal Proximal Middle Middle Distal Distal

a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view b Posterior view 8-2 The Upper Limbs Metacarpal Bones The five long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges Phalanges of the Hands 14 total finger bones Pollex (thumb) Two phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers Three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-6a Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand. Radius Carpals Ulna Carpals Lunate Scaphoid Pisiform Triquetrum Trapezium Hamate Trapezoid

Capitate I V II Pollex III IV Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Phalanges Proximal Middle Distal

a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view Metacarpal bones Figure 8-6b Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand. Ulna Carpals Radius Carpals Lunate Scaphoid

Pisiform Trapezium Triquetrum Trapezoid Hamate I Capitate V IV III II Metacarpal bones

Phalanges Proximal Middle Distal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. b Posterior view 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle The Pelvic Girdle Made up of two hip bones (coxal bones) Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis Coxal bones Made up of three fused bones 1.

2. 3. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ilium (articulates with sacrum) Ischium Pubis 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Coxal Bones The acetabulum Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the hip bone (coxal bone) Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface) Acetabular notch A gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8-7a The Right Hip Bone. Ilium POSTERIOR Ischium ANTERIOR Pubis Gluteal Lines Iliac crest Anterior Inferior Anterior superior iliac spine

Posterior Anterior inferior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Acetabulum Lunate surface Acetabulum Posterior inferior iliac spine Acetabular notch Greater sciatic notch Pubis Ischial spine

Superior ramus Lesser sciatic notch Pubic tubercle Obturator foramen Inferior ramus Ischial tuberosity Ischial ramus a Right hip bone, lateral view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Ilium Greater sciatic notch For sciatic nerve

Iliac crest Upper brim Iliac fossa Depression between iliac crest and arcuate line 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Ischium Ischial spine Above lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Posterior projection you sit on Ischial ramus Meets inferior ramus of pubis Superior ramus Meets pubic tubercle

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Pubis Pubic symphysis Gap between pubic tubercles Padded with fibrocartilage Obturator foramen Formed by ischial and pubic rami Attaches hip muscles 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Pubis Pectineal line Ridge of superior ramus of pubis Continues to iliac crest as arcuate line (both of the ilia) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 8-7a The Right Hip Bone. Ilium POSTERIOR Ischium ANTERIOR Pubis Gluteal Lines Iliac crest Anterior Inferior Anterior superior iliac spine

Posterior Anterior inferior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Acetabulum Lunate surface Acetabulum Posterior inferior iliac spine Acetabular notch Greater sciatic notch Pubis Ischial spine

Superior ramus Lesser sciatic notch Pubic tubercle Obturator foramen Inferior ramus Ischial tuberosity Ischial ramus a Right hip bone, lateral view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-7b The Right Hip Bone. Ilium POSTERIOR

ANTERIOR Pubis Ischium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Auricular surface for articulation with sacrum Iliac fossa Iliac tuberosity Anterior inferior iliac spine

Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Arcuate line Pubis Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Pubic tubercle Pectineal line Ischial tuberosity Ischial ramus Location of pubic symphysis b Right hip bone, medial view

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Coxal Bones Articulations of the pelvic girdle Sacroiliac joint Articulation of posterior auricular surface of ilium With the sacrum Stabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosity The Pelvis Consists of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-8a The Pelvis of an Adult Male. Sacrum

Coccyx Ilium Pubis Hip bone (see Figure 87) Ischium Iliac crest L5 Iliac fossa Sacroiliac joint Sacrum Ilium Arcuate line

Pubis Acetabulum Pubic symphysis Pubic tubercle Ischium Obturator foramen a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view Figure 8-8b The Pelvis of an Adult Male. Sacrum

Coccyx Ilium Pubis Hip bone (see Figure 87) Ischium Iliac crest L5 Sacral foramina Posterior superior iliac spine Sacrum Posterior inferior iliac spine

Greater sciatic notch Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity Coccyx b Posterior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Divisions of the Pelvis True pelvis Encloses pelvic cavity Pelvic brim Upper edge of true pelvis Encloses pelvic inlet Perineum region Inferior edges of true pelvis Forms pelvic outlet

Perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Divisions of the Pelvis False pelvis Blades of ilium above arcuate line 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-9a Divisions of the Pelvis. False pelvis Pelvic outlet Pelvic brim Pelvic inlet a Superior view. The

pelvic brim, pelvic inlet, and pelvic outlet. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-9b Divisions of the Pelvis. False pelvis Pelvic inlet Pelvic brim True pelvis Pelvic outlet b Lateral view. The boundaries of the true (lesser) pelvis (shown in purple) and the

(false) greater pelvis. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-9c Divisions of the Pelvis. Pelvic outlet Ischial spine c Inferior view. The limits of the pelvic outlet. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female Pelvis Female pelvis Smoother and lighter Less prominent muscle and ligament attachments Pelvis modifications for childbearing

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (>100) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upward Figure 8-10 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton (Part 1 of 4). MALE FEMALE

SKULL Heavier, rougher General Appearance Lighter, smoother About 10% larger More sloping About 10% smaller Forehead More vertical Larger Sinuses Smaller Larger Teeth Smaller

Larger, more robust 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cranium Mandible Smaller, less robust Figure 8-10 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton (Part 2 of 4). PELVIS Narrower, rougher, more robust General Appearance Broader, smoother, less robust More vertical; extends farther superior to sacroiliac joint Long, narrow triangle with pronounced sacral curvature Deeper

Narrower, heart shaped Narrow Points anteriorly Directed laterally Oval Under 90 Ilium Sacrum Less vertical; less extension superior to sacral articulation Broad, short triangle with less sacral curvature Iliac fossa

Shallower Pelvic inlet Open, circular shaped Pelvic outlet Coccyx Acetabulum Enlarged Points inferiorly Faces slightly anteriorly Obturator foramen Triangular Pubic angle

100 or more OTHER Heavier More prominent 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone weight Bone markings Lighter Less prominent Figure 8-10 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton (Part 3 of 4). PELVIS Narrower, rougher, more robust General Appearance More vertical; extends farther superior to sacroiliac joint Long, narrow triangle with pronounced

sacral curvature Deeper Narrower, heart shaped Narrow Points anteriorly Directed laterally Oval Under 90 Ilium Sacrum Iliac fossa Pelvic inlet Pelvic outlet Coccyx

Acetabulum Obturator foramen Pubic angle OTHER Heavier More prominent 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone weight Bone markings Figure 8-10 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton (Part 4 of 4). PELVIS General Appearance Broader, smoother, less robust Ilium Sacrum

Less vertical; less extension superior to sacral articulation Broad, short triangle with less sacral curvature Iliac fossa Shallower Pelvic inlet Open, circular shaped Pelvic outlet Coccyx Acetabulum Enlarged Points

inferiorly Faces slightly anteriorly Obturator foramen Triangular Pubic angle 100 or more OTHER Bone weight Bone markings 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lighter Less prominent 8-4 The Lower Limbs Functions of the Lower Limbs Weight bearing Motion

Note: leg lower leg; thigh upper leg 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Bones of the Lower Limbs Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The proximal epiphysis Femoral head Articulates with pelvis at acetabulum Attaches at fovea capitis The neck Narrow area between head and trochanters Joins shaft at angle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The proximal epiphysis Trochanters Greater trochanter and lesser trochanter Tendon attachments Intertrochanteric line (anterior) and intertrochanteric crest (posterior) Mark edge of articular capsule

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The shaft Linea aspera Most prominent ridge of shaft Attaches hip muscles Joins epicondyles 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The distal epiphysis Medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle Above the knee joint Medial condyle and lateral condyle Separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface

Form part of knee joint 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-11 Bone Markings on the Right Femur. Neck Fovea capitis Neck Greater trochanter Femoral head Greater trochanter Intertrochanteric crest Intertrochanteric line

Gluteal tuberosity Lesser trochanter Pectineal line Linea aspera Shaft Lateral supracondylar ridge Medial supracondylar ridge Popliteal surface Patellar surface Lateral epicondyle Lateral condyle Intercondylar fossa Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle

Medial condyle a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Adductor tubercle Anterior surface Lateral condyle b Posterior surface 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Patella Also called the kneecap

A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-12a The Right Patella (a,b) and Patella with Femur (c). Base of patella Attachment area for quadriceps tendon Attachment area for patellar ligament Apex of patella a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Anterior view Figure 8-12b The Right Patella (a,b) and Patella with Femur (c). Lateral facet, for lateral condyle of femur Medial facet, for medial condyle of femur Articular surface of patella b Posterior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-12c The Right Patella (a,b) and Patella with Femur (c). Patella Lateral facet, for lateral condyle of femur

Medial facet, for medial condyle of femur Lateral condyle of femur Medial condyle of femur c Inferior view of right femur and patella 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Tibia

Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Tibia The proximal epiphysis Medial and lateral tibial condyles Separated by intercondylar eminence Articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity Attaches patellar ligament 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

8-4 The Lower Limbs The Tibia The shaft Anterior margin Sharp ridge of shinbone The distal epiphysis Medial malleolus Medial projection at the ankle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Fibula

Articulations with tibia Fibula/tibia articulations Head Inferior tibiofibular joint Interosseous membrane Binds fibula to tibia Lateral malleolus Lateral projection of ankle 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-13a The Right Tibia and Fibula. Lateral tibial condyle Medial tibial condyle Head of fibula Superior tibiofibular

joint Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior margin Tibia Fibula Medial malleolus (tibia) Lateral malleolus (fibula) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Inferior articular surface a Anterior view Figure 8-13b The Right Tibia and Fibula.

Intercondylar eminence Articular surface of lateral tibial condyle Articular surface of medial tibial condyle Medial tibial condyle Lateral tibial condyle Head of fibula Interosseous membrane Tibia Fibula Inferior tibiofibular joint

Medial malleolus (tibia) Lateral malleolus (fibula) b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view Figure 8-13c The Right Tibia and Fibula. Anterior margin Tibia Fibula Interosseous membrane c Transverse section of tibia and fibula

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Ankle Also called the tarsus Consists of seven tarsal bones Bones of the ankle Talus Carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone) Transfers weight from talus to ground Attaches calcaneal (Achilles) tendon Cuboid Articulates with calcaneus 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Ankle Bones of the ankle

Navicular Articulates with talus and three cuneiform bones Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-14a Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Tarsal bones Calcaneus Trochlea of talus Navicular Cuboid Cuneiform bones Lateral Intermediate Medial V IV III

II I Metatarsal bones Phalanges Proximal Middle Distal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hallux Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx a Superior view, right foot 8-4 The Lower Limbs

Metatarsal Bones of the Foot Five long bones of foot Numbered IV, medial to lateral Articulate with toes 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Phalanges of the Foot Phalanges 14 bones of the toes Hallux Big toe or great toe, two phalanges (distal, proximal) Other four toes Three phalanges (distal, medial, proximal) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-14a Bones of the Ankle and Foot.

Tarsal bones Calcaneus Trochlea of talus Navicular Cuboid Cuneiform bones Lateral Intermediate Medial V IV III II I Metatarsal bones Phalanges Proximal Middle

Distal 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hallux Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx a Superior view, right foot 8-4 The Lower Limbs Arches of the Feet Arches transfer weight from one part of the foot to another The longitudinal arch Calcaneal portion Lateral Talar portion Medial

The transverse arch Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-14b Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Talus Cuboid Navicular Cuneiform bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges Calcaneus b Lateral view, right foot 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-14c Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Medial Navicular Talus cuneiform

bone Metatarsal Phalanges bones Calcaneus Transverse Longitudinal arch arch c Medial view, right foot 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Individual Skeleton Variation Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics Muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) Medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)

Body size 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8-1 Age-Related Changes in the Skeleton (Part 1 of 2). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8-1 Age-Related Changes in the Skeleton (Part 2 of 2). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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