1450 - 1750 Common Characteristics Religion (of the

1450 - 1750 Common Characteristics  Religion (of the

1450 - 1750 Common Characteristics Religion (of the rulers at least) All three Islamic empires were military creations Governing Autocratic: emperors imposed their will on the state Ongoing problems with royal succession Ottoman rulers legally killed brothers after taking the throne

Influence of Royal and Upper-Class Women Harem Harem politics: women often Political OTTOMAN EMPIRE RISE OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Founded in 1289 by Osman, who commanded a large group of Muslim warriors Later Expand into outer regions of Byzantine Empire Successful b/c of gunpowder in early sieges Use of Janissary Corps 14th-15th centuries: Expand

into South Eastern Europe 1453: Conquer Constantinople Under the leadership of Mehmed II (r. 1451-1481) Absolute monarchy; centralized state Maintained strong navy in Mediterranean region to protect trade routes they controlled there. Remained a significant sea power until the 1700s.

Politics of the ottoman empire Sultans control politics and economy Promoted religious toleration to People of the Books Separate themselves from the masses Face many issues with succession Harem Sultans will promote cultural heritage and development Architecture

Coffeehouses SULEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT Empire at its height under Suleyman Reigned 1520-1566 Came to power through murder of brothers Conquered lands in Europe, Asia, Africa Syria, modern-day Israel, Egypt Hungary, Croatia, Rumania Siege of Vienna (Austria) in 1529 failed Built powerful navy to rule Mediterranean

Encouraged development of arts Beautified Constantinople with mosques Empire began a slow decline after Suleyman Society Ottoman SOCIAL STRUCTURE Women typically restricted to the harem = part of the house that the women resided in. Only men of close relation were allowed in. Women had no rights aside from

tradition, class, husbands wishes Ottoman Law Ottomans (Muslims) ruled diverse people: Arabs, Greeks, Slavs, Armenians, Jews, etc. Millets = separate communities of nonMuslims --> each millet controlled its own affairs Population divided into different classes 1st class = ruling class made up of sultan, his family & high government officials 2nd class = nobility 3rd class (largest) = peasants

The ottoman MILLET system Millet System: Different communities based on religion throughout the empire Each millet was headed by its own religious dignitary Advised sultan on affairs in the community Was punished by sultan for problems of the community In the millet system each community was responsible for Taxes Education Legal Matters: Marriage, Divorce, Inheritance

Coerced labor in the Ottoman Empire Devshirme System: Young Balkan, Christian males between the ages of 8 and 15 Educated in Palace schools, converted to Islam Learned several languages (Turkish, Arabic, Persian) Trained in military techniques Pledged absolute allegiance to Sultan Received highest offices in Empire Others were forced to work for farmers

Some become the elite infantry of the Ottoman Empire Janissary Corps (ended c. 1800) Culture Ottoman Islamic Civilization Borrowed many elements from the Byzantine, Persian, and Arab cultures Bridges, mosques, and aqueducts reflect this blend of culture Turned Christian church of Hagia Sophia into a mosque

1750 - 1800 The Contraction of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire: Sick Man of Europe In the 1800s= the Ottoman Empire went from being a great power in the world to one of the weakest territories Could no longer keep up with Western Europe

Unable to prevent region after region from falling under European control Causes of Territorial Losses Cause #1 = European aggression Invasions from Russia, Britain, France, and Austria Example: one of the earliest invasions = in 1798 = Napoleons invasion of Egypt Cause #2 = Nationalism and independence movements by

different groups within the Ottoman Empire Napoleons Invasion of Egypt Independence achieved by: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania (with help of European militaries) Driven by nationalism More Problems for the Ottoman Empire Weak central government Increasing power of local

authorities and rulers Unable to effectively raise revenue (taxes) Growing technological and military gap with Europe Decreasing power of the Janissaries (elite infantry units of the Ottoman Empire) Economic Problems for the Ottoman Empire The economy of the Ottoman Empire weakened for several reasons:

An Ottoman Merchant in Istanbul (with no customers) Europeans achieved direct sea access to Asia = no longer a need for them to go through the Ottoman and Arab land routes to get there = loss of revenue for those groups Ottoman artisans and workers hit hard by competition from cheap European manufactured goods

Economic Problems for the Ottoman Empire Series of unbalanced agreements between European powers and the Ottoman Empire = allowed Europeans many exemptions from Ottoman law and taxation Allowed these Westerners to easily infiltrate the Ottoman economy Ottoman Empire came to rely on foreign loans to sustain itself Unable to repay those debts OR the

interest on them Led to foreign control of much of its revenue-generating system The Ottoman Empire: Attempts at Reform Ottoman Empire began programs of defensive modernization Earlier, more sustained, and more vigorous than the self-strengthening policies of China The Ottoman Empire contributed to this: China Several factors

No internal upheavals Taiping Rebellion Only nationalist revolts on edges of empire Peasant rebellions at the center of the state No explosive population growth Massive population growth Ottoman leaders = Turkic and Muslim (similar to

their people) Chinas rulers = Qing rulers = Manchu (considered foreigners & NOT like their people) The Ottoman Empire: Attempts at Reform Reforms began in the late 1700s with Sultan Selim III Wanted to reorganize and update the army Wanted to draw on European advisors and techniques

Result = opposition from ulama (Muslim religious scholars) and the Janissaries Believed these reforms would threaten their power and that they conflicted with Islam Selim III = overthrown and murdered in 1807 The Ottoman Empire: Attempts at Reform Future sultans crushed the Janissaries and brought the ulama

under state control Started the Tanzimat (reorganization) reform: Factories making cloth, paper, and arms Modern mining operations Resettlement of agricultural land Telegraphs, steamships, railroads, modern postal service Western-style law codes and courts New elementary and secondary schools Equal rights (under law) for Muslims AND non-Muslims

The Ottoman Constitution, 1895 (Extended equal rights to all) Supporters of Ottoman Reforms Supporters of these reforms = called the Young Ottomans Lower-level officials and military officers, writers, poets, journalists Had a new view of the Ottoman Empire = a secular state whose people were loyal to the dynasty that ruled it, rather than a state based on religion

Wanted a European-style democratic, constitutional government Only way to overcome backwardness and stop European aggression Supporters of Ottoman Reforms Islamic modernism = idea that Muslim societies can embrace Western technical and scientific knowledge, while rejecting its materialism Islam can be modern AND maintain its religious character

Supporters of Ottoman Reforms The Young Ottomans did not have much success authoritarian rule continued in the Ottoman Empire Young Turks = group of military and civilian elites Opposed this tyrannical rule Wanted a completely secular (non-religious) law code Supported continuing modernization based on European achievements Viewed the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state

This antagonized non-Turkic peoples and helped stimulate Arab and other nationalisms contributed to disintegration of Ottoman Empire after WWI A photograph of Young Turks from 1902 Supporters of Ottoman Reforms 1908 = successful military coup by the Young Turks Reforms that they implemented:

Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution Secularized schools, courts, and law codes Allowed elections and political parties Established a Law of Family Rights for all people Opened up modern schools for women Allowed women to wear Western clothing Restricted polygamy Allowed women to get divorces in some situations Encouraged Turkish as the official

language Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire Both shared several similarities by the beginning of the 20th century: Both semi-colonies within the informal empires of Europe Both were hurt by a rapidly shifting balance of global power Kept formal independence Attempted to modernize, but never truly succeeded; no industrial economies No restoration of a strong state Both gave rise to new nationalist views of society Both empires officially collapsed in the early 20th century

Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire There were also key differences between China and the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of European imperialism: China The Ottoman Empire Collapse of the Chinese empire in 1911 was followed by a revolutionary upheaval that led to a communist government by 1949

Collapse of the Ottoman Empire was followed by the creation of new, smaller nation-states including Turkey Rejection of Confucian culture Islam retained a hold on civilization -Viewed as secular and elitist - Confucianism was always tied to a single state (China); not thriving elsewhere -Islamic religious tradition = personally

meaningful to its followers - Islam = never tied to a single state; many independent centers

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