Life Outside Earth 1/12/2019 Scientistmel.com Twitter.com/ scientistmel SPACE

Life Outside Earth 1/12/2019 Scientistmel.com Twitter.com/ scientistmel SPACE

Life Outside Earth 1/12/2019 Scientistmel.com Twitter.com/ scientistmel SPACE WHAT IS ASTROBIOLOGY? WHERE COULD WE FIND LIFE? (WHAT KIND) WHAT NEEDS TO BE THERE FOR LIFE? IS A MARS MISSION REALLY POSSIBLE?

ASTROBIOLOGY Breakdown Study of life outside of earth Looks to chemistry associated with life Studies extremophiles for comparison Looks at ancient rock

NP ASTROBIOLOGY FOCUSES ON ORGANISMS THAT LIVE IN THE HARSHEST CONDITIONS OF EARTHPENN STATE HAS AN ASTROBIOLOGY RESEARCH CENTER WHERE THEY WORK IN COORDINATION WITH NASA TO DEVELOP NOVEL AND EFFECTIVE APPROACHES AT DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING LIFE OUTSIDE OF EARTH THROUGH INVESTIGATING ANCIENT ROCK THAT REFLECT ROCK FOUND OUTSIDE OF EARTH. THEY STUDY THESE TINY ECOSYSTEMS LOOKING FOR BIOSIGNATURES THAT COULD MIRROR THE CONDITIONS TO FIND LIFE OUTSIDE OF EARTH. WHERE DO THEY LOOK?

Y Research Biosignatur es Ancient rocks Relevant Microbial Ecosystems Extraterrestrial Settings NP BIOSIGNATURES IN ANCIENT ROCKS THE EARTHS ARCHEAN AND PROTEROZOIC EONS OFFER THE BEST OPPORTUNITY

FOR INVESTIGATING A MICROBIAL WORLD, SUCH AS MIGHT BE FOUND ELSEWHERE IN THE COSMOS. THE ANCIENT RECORD ON EARTH PROVIDES AN OPPORTUNITY TO SEE WHAT GEOCHEMICAL SIGNATURES ARE PRODUCED BY MICROBIAL LIFE AND HOW THESE SIGNATURES ARE PRESERVED OVER GEOLOGIC TIME. BIOSIGNATURES IN RELEVANT MICROBIAL ECOSYSTEMS WE WILL INVESTIGATE MICROBIAL LIFE IN SOME OF EARTHS MOST MISSIONRELEVANT ECOSYSTEMS: THE DEAD SEA, THE CHESAPEAKE IMPACT STRUCTURE, THE METHANE SEEPS OF THE EEL RIVER BASIN, AND GREENLAND GLACIER ICE. BIOSIGNATURES IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL SETTINGS WE WILL INVESTIGATE THE ABUNDANCE OF SULFUR GASES AND ELUCIDATE HOW THESE GASES CAN BE EXPECTED TO EVOLVE WITH TIME ON YOUNG TERRESTRIAL PLANETS. WE WILL CONTINUE STUDIES OF PLANET FORMATION IN THE PRESENCE OF MIGRATION AND MODEL RADIAL TRANSPORT OF VOLATILES IN YOUNG PLANETARY SYSTEMS, AND WILL ALSO BE INVOLVED WITH SEARCHES FOR M STAR

PLANETARY COMPANIONS AND PLANETS AROUND K-GIANT STARS. LIFE? CELLULAR IS MOST FEASIBLE TARDISGRADES GIVE CLUES NP 0.05 MM 1.2 MM THEY CAN LIVE ANYWHEREIN EXTREME HEATSURVIVE COSMIC RADIATION LIVE WITHOUT WATER FOR 10 YEARSTHEY CAN BE FROZEN AND BROUGHT BACK TO LIFEYHEY ARE OVER 600 MILLION YEARS OLDREPRODUCE BOTH SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLYTHERE ARE A WHOLE LOT OF SUBSPECIES

THE TARDIGRADE PHYLUM BRANCHES OUT INTO: 3 CLASSES 5 ORDERS 20 FAMILIES 15 SUBFAMILIES 105 GENERA 4 SUBGENERA 1,018 SPECIES 67 SUBSPECIES NP THERE ARE OTHER EXTREMOPHILES ON EARTH THAT ARE STUDIED TO GAIN INSIGHT AS TO LIFE ON OTHEWR PPLANETS ACIDOPHILE: AN ORGANISM THAT GROWS BEST AT ACIDIC (LOW) PH VALUES.

ALKALIPHILE: AN ORGANISM THAT GROWS BEST AT HIGH PH VALUES. ANAEROBE: AN ORGANISM THAT CAN GROW IN THE ABSENCE OF OXYGEN. FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE: AN ORGANISM THAT GROWS IN THE PRESENCE OR IN THE ABSENCE OF OXYGEN. OBLIGATE ANAEROBE: AN ORGANISM THAT CANNOT GROW IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN; THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN EITHER INHIBITS GROWTH OR KILLS THE ORGANISM. CYANOBACTERIA FROM LADUKE SPRING A THERMAL SITE IN YELLOWSTONE SHOWSHOW CAPTION ENDOLITH: AN ORGANISM THAT LIVES INSIDE ROCK OR IN THE PORES BETWEEN MINERAL GRAINS. HALOPHILE: AN ORGANISM REQUIRING HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF SALT FOR GROWTH. METHANOGEN: AN ORGANISM THAT PRODUCES METHANE FROM THE REACTION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE, MEMBER OF THE ARCHAEA. OLIGOTROPH: AN ORGANISM WITH OPTIMAL GROWTH IN NUTRIENT LIMITED CONDITIONS. PIEZOPHILE (BAROPHILE): AN ORGANISM THAT LIVES OPTIMALLY AT HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

PSYCHROPHILE: AN ORGANISM WITH OPTIMAL GROWTH AT TEMPERATURE 15 C OR LOWER. THERMOPHILE: AN ORGANISM WITH OPTIMAL GROWTH AT TEMPERATURE 40 C OR HIGHER. HYPERTHERMOPHILE: AN ORGANISM WITH OPTIMAL GROWTH AT TEMPERATURE 80 C OR HIGHER. TOXITOLERANT: AN ORGANISM ABLE TO WITHSTAND HIGH LEVELS OF DAMAGING ELEMENTS (E.G., POOLS OF BENZENE, NUCLEAR WASTE). XEROPHILE: AN ORGANISM CAPABLE OF GROWTH AT VERY LOW WATER ACTIVITY. LIFE? BRINE SHRIMP: SALT WATER SURVIVORS METHANE ICE WORMS: ICE DWELLERS RUSHING FIREBALL MICROBE: POSSIBLE CO2 EATER

NP THE MORE WE STUDY ORGANISMS WHO LIVE IN EXTREME CONDITIONS, THE BETTER WE CAN UNDERSTAND HOW ORGANISMS COULD LIVE OUTSIDE THE SAFETY NET OF OUR PLANET. THERE ARE LIMITS TO ASTROBIOLOGY. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE ARE PUBLISHING A STRATEGY FOR FINDING LIFE OUTSIDE OF OUR PLANET. IT IS STILL UNDER EDITORIAL REVIEW, BUT YOU CAN ACTUALLY READ THE STRATEGY FOR YOURSELFALL 186 PAGES OF IT AS EXPERTS COMPILED A LIST OF THINGS THAT NEED TO BE DONE IN ORDER TO REFINE OUR SEARCH FOR LIFE. MOVING FORWARD

Strateg y Collab with Private Org. and Countries Subsurface Life Extremophile Research Refine Biosignature Research SETI Project N

NP WHY TIATN? IT HAS A LARGE AMOUNT OF ORGANIC MOLECULES WE SEE ACTIVELY IN LIVING ORGANISMS WITHIN OUR OWN PLANET. IT HAS A LARGE AMOUNT OF METHANE WHICH IS A BYPRODUCT OF ORGANISMS ON OUR PLANET. IT CAN ALSO BE USED AS A FUEL SOURCE. SCIENTISTS ARE INTRIGUED BY TITAN IN THAT FORMATION OF MORE COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES HAVE OCCURRED IN LAB WITH SIMILAR CONDITIONS AS THE TITAN ATMOSPHERE. THE ATMOSPHERE RESEMBLES THAT OF EARLY EARTH WHICH ALSO GIVES A NUDGE TOWARDS LIFE ON TITAN. OF COURSE MORE RESEARCH NEEDS TO BE PERFORMED IN ORDER TO VET AND VALIDATE SUCH BIOSIGNATURES AND MORE INFORMATION WOULD NEED TO BE COLLECTED ESPECIALLY AT THE SUBSURFACE LEVELS OF TITAN THAT PRESENTS ITS OWN CHALLENGES. A LAND ROVER WOULD HAVE TO SURVIVE THE CURRENT

CONDITIONS ARE AT -179 C MARS ONE HTTPS://WWW.MARS-ONE.COM/MISSION/ROADMAP NP THE BIGGEST OBSTACLE IS PREPARING FOR HUMANS TO SURVIVE THE HARSH CONDITIONS OF MARSROBOTIC SPACECRAFT IS THE FIRST STEP IN UNDERSTANDING FULLY THE CONDITIONS OF MARS AND WHAT TO EXPECT FOR HUMAN SUSTAINABILITY. NASA IS HOPEFUL WE WILL HAVE A PLACE ON MARS IN THE NEXT 11 YEARS

SPACE WHAT IS ASTROBIOLOGY? WHERE COULD WE FIND LIFE? (WHAT KIND) WHAT NEEDS TO BE THERE FOR LIFE? IS A MARS MISSION REALLY POSSIBLE? THANK YOU TO MY PATRONS JAMES

KERI CARL CIRCE MELANIE KEITH

DUKE PATRICK JAMES STEVEN Graham Zachary

Dragnaucht Tony Godless Iowan Bo Jennifer

Andy JENN DANIEL PAOLA NA/NA

Steven Richard Sarah Doc Fearsome Chris Neil

You can find me ScientistMel.com Patreon.com/ scientistmel Pscp.tv.com/ scientistmel Youtube.com/ scientistmel Facebook.com/ scientistmel Life Outside Earth 1/12/2019

Scientistmel.com Twitter.com/ scientistmel SOURCES AZONANO.COM HTTPS://WWW.ARANCA.COM/KNOWLEDGE-LIBRARY/INFOGRAPHICS/IP-RESEA RCH/TYPES-OF-PREVALENT-NANOPARTICLES HTTPS://WWW.NCBI.NLM.NIH.GOV/PMC/ARTICLES/PMC3865110/

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