Food supplies in a globalising economy The role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in food production, processing and distribution Exam technique practice Exam question 1 Name a major TNC involved in food production, processing or supplying food and outline its role in food supply in a globalising economy (4) Exam question 1 Name a major TNC involved in food
production, processing or supplying food and outline its role in food supply in a globalising economy (4) Pick apart the question decide what the focus of the question is Nestle What is Nestle's role in food supply? Horizontally integrated agribusiness Largest food processing company in the world
HQ in Switzerland Employs over 281,000 people in 443 factories worldwide Largest manufacturer of pet food, mineral water and coffee Get across the theme of a globalising economy! Coffee is grown in many LEDCs such as
Indonesia, exported to USA for processing then distributed worldwide A model answer? Nestle is a horizontally integrated agribusiness, and the largest transnational food processing company in the world. The headquarters are in Switzerland, but Nestle employs approximately 281,000 people in some 443 factories worldwide. Initially Nestle was founded on powdered milk, but today it is the world biggest manufacturer of pet food, mineral water, coffee and ice cream. In terms of coffee and cocoa, its role in food supply is one of production and processing, although its products are exported and marketed all over the world. Coffee is grown in LEDCs such as Brazil and Indonesia and then exported to countries such
as the USA where it is processed in factories. Coffee is then shipped all over the world under the name of Nescafe. How could you improve the answer? Task 1: Answer the question Remember, the devil is in the detail! If your answer is wishy washy and vague you will not get out of level 1. To get into level 2/3 you need to include specific characteristics of Nestle in the context of the question. Exam question 2 In recent years TNCs have had an
increasing role in the production, processing and distribution of food. What reservations have been expressed about the increasing importance of such companies? (15) Pick apart the question decide what the focus of the question is Exam question 2 In recent years TNCs have had an increasing role in the production, processing and distribution of food. What reservations have been expressed about the increasing importance of such companies? (15)
Name TNC and relate back to question Describe the problems with such companies? Can you categorise them/ back up each negative point with an example. Approach like a mini essay! Use the template provided on geogon.net! Part 1 - Introduction Briefly introduce Nestle, with some evidence to support that it is a TNC
Swiss company Operates in 443 factories worldwide Largest food processing company in the world Largest manufacturer of pet food, mineral water and coffee Part 2 - Main body Describe the reservations (negative aspects) about Nestle. Try to categorise the reservations you have identified. Stick to around 3 or 4 max! Each reservation must be firmly grounded in /
supported by a detailed example or case study. What to include in Part 2 Environmental Environmental destruction and degradation Socioeconomic Use of child labour Political Dictates terms and conditions to farmers
Part 2 - how to link your ideas together WHY? SO WHAT? and REASONS FOR SOMETHING RESULTS OR EFFECTS OF SOMETHING CONSEQUENCES or EFFECTS
AS A RESULT Something happens LEADING TO SO MEANIN G THAT CONSEQUENTLY THEREFOR
E Something else happens A BASIC (or GATE) DESCRIPTION (Level 1) (The way in to the answer) Nestle has been criticised for using environmentally damaging processes AS A
RESULT of suppliers destroying protected areas of forest to grow coffee for Nescafe, a brand of Nestle. A CLEAR or STEP-UP EXPLANATION (Add some more detail to relate the point you have made back to the original question) Level 2 ...endangered species of LEADING TO
AS A RESULT Nestle has been criticised for using environmentally damaging processes tiger and rhino abandoning their habitat in Sumatra ...of suppliers destroying protected areas of forest to
grow coffee for Nescafe, a brand of Nestle. A LADDER EXPLANATION (The answer is built up, and is firmly grounded in the context of a detailed case study) Level 3 Many critically endangered species are under threat, including elephants, rhino and the Sumatran tiger, CONSEQUENTLY as they are forced to leave their habitat. Some 45,000 hectares of land have been cleared and it is estimated that there are just 400 Sumatran tigers remaining, and they will become extinct in the next decade. 20% of protected forest in the Bukit Barisan Selatan
(BBS) national park in Sumatra has been destroyed. This AS A is because coffee is being grown illegally by suppliers, RESULT then mixed with legally grown coffee beans to boost profits. The beans are then bought by companies such as Nestle and Kraft. Nestle has been criticised for using environmentally damaging processes in countries with lenient environmental regulations, such as Indonesia. Part 2 example - a model answer? Firstly, companies such as Nestle have been criticised for their environmentally damaging processes in countries with lenient environmental regulations. In Sumatra, Indonesia coffee is grown
illegally in a protected area of forest which is home to many endangered species such as Sumatran tigers, elephants and Rhino. As a result of illegal agriculture it is estimated that 20% of the forest has been degraded, covering some 45,000 hectares resulting in wildlife abandoning the area. It is thought that the tigers will be extinct in less than a decade, yet Nestle continues to source coffee from the area. Part 3 - Conclusion Refer back to the original question, summarise the main reservations people have about TNCs like Nestle. Before concluding (so in the main body) you could
balance the argument by briefly outlining some of the more positive aspects of TNCs!
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