Review Give a brief description of Muhammeds childhood.
Review Give a brief description of Muhammeds childhood. Born in Mecca in AD 570. His father, however, died before Muhammads birth, and his mother died when he was only six, so the young Muhammad was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib. What are some things we learned last week about Muhammeds (first) wife, Khadijah? When they met, she was a wealthy widow for whom he worked as a successful merchant When they married (in AD 595), she was 40 and he was 25 Their marriage produced two boys and four girls When Muhammad had his vision, she believed it was from God before he did and she became his first convert.
Give a brief description of how Muhammads first vision took place. The angel Gabriel appeared to him while he was meditating in a cave in AD 610. Give two things about Jesus that Muslims and Christians agree on and two things about Jesus that Muslims and Christians disagree on. Agree Jesus was sinless, virgin-born, a miracle-worker, and a great prophet Disagree whether Jesus is God and whether he was crucified. Review What is the unforgivable sin in Islam called and what does it mean? To commit shirk means to commit idolatry and violate Allahs oneness by acknowledging any other god besides Allah
Why did Muhammad flee Mecca and what significance does the date of his flight have in Islam? Muhammad and his followers were a persecuted minority and his uncle, who had been protecting him died. The date of his flight marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. What are the five main duties (pillars) of Islam? Shahadah, or the confession of faith There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet. Prayer five times a day, said facing towards Mecca. Giving charitable gifts of money as a welfare contribution to the poor. Fasting in the holy month of Ramadan. A pilgrimage to Mecca, which a Muslim must try to make at least once.
Other Interesting Facts About Islam http://yousense.info/69736c616d/islam-is-not-a-religion-of-terror-the-review-of-religions.html The Kaaba and the Black Stone To Muslims, Mecca is an important place from a religious standpoint because of the Grand Mosque and a black building it surrounds called the Kaaba which contains the black stone. The black stone is believed by Muslims to have been white when it fell from heaven it, but then turned black because of the sins of man.
The Kaaba is just a building which, historically, has been rebuilt many times. Its the black stone that has religious significance to the Muslims. * James White 2016 Church History Series #39 Islamic Impact Part 1 The Grand Mosque https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaaba#/media/File:Al-Haram_mosque_-_Flickr_-_Al_Jazeera_English.jpg The Kaaba https://unsplash.com/photos/cAQXApsh490
The Black Stone https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Stone The Black Stone https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Stone The Kaaba and the Black Stone Muslims believe that the Kaaba was originally built by Abraham and Ishmael. According to Muslims, it was Ishmael, the father of the Arabs, who was offered on the alter by Abraham, not Isaac (cf. Genesis 22).
Historically, there is no evidence that Abraham ever even went to Mecca. The Muslims believe that over time the Kaaba became corrupted so that by the time of Muhammad it had become a place of polytheistic idolatry. * James White 2016 Church History Series #39 Islamic Impact Part 1 The Seriousness of Committing Shirk Muhammads parents died as Mushrikun (comes from the term shirk Mu in Arabic is a participle). Muhammad asked for the right to intercede for his parents after their death, but because they were guilty of shirk, Allah would not allow it.
In Islam, there is only one example of forgiveness for shirk: Muhammads uncle, Abu Talib. Muhammad had approached his uncle when Abu was on his deathbed and told him that he needed recite the Shahada and become a Muslim. But his uncle would not do it. After his uncle died, Muhammad made intercession for him and Allahs response was to give Abu Talib the best spot in hell. One description given of the best spot in hell is that his uncle is standing in fire thats so hot that his brains boil. * James White 2016 Church History Series #39 Islamic Impact Part 1 The Hadith of the Man Who Killed 99 Men A man who murdered 99 people went to a priest and asked the priest if God would accept his repentance.
The priest, knowing what he had done, said no. And so the man killed the priest! Then the man went to a scholar and asked if God would accept his repentance. The scholar told him to go to such and such a city, that the people there were particularly godly and they would instruct him how he should do repentance so as to be accepted by God. As the man was going to that city, the time for his death came. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 The Hadith of the Man Who Killed 99 Men Note: There is another Hadith that says that 40 days after someone
is conceived, an angel comes and writes a certain number of things that will happen to that person: Whether they will be male or female, Whether theyre going to be successful or not, The day of their death, Whether theyre going to heaven or hell. That same Hadith says that there are people who do the deeds of the people of the fire for their entire life (rebellion, sin) until they
are a hands breadth from entering into the fire and then what is written of them overcomes them and they enter into Jannah (paradise). Likewise, it says there are people who do the deeds of the people of paradise their entire life, theyre righteous people, until they are a hands breadth from entering into paradise and then what is written of them overcomes them and they go to hell fire. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 The Hadith of the Man Who Killed 99 Men So when it says the murderer was going to the city and the time of his death came it is a referring to the idea that an angel had already written down the time of his death. Muslims also believe that when you die, an angel comes from the fire
and another angel comes from paradise to argue over your soul. Now you would think this case would be a slam-dunk this guy killed 100 people! But the angel from paradise makes the argument that yes, he was evil, but he was on his way to find out about repentance. And so Allah decrees that if the man was one cubit closer to the city he was going to than the city he was coming from when he died, he would go to paradise. And in some versions of the story, Allah shrinks the earth in such a way that the place where the man died ends up being one cubit closer to the city he was going to than the city he was coming from, and so he ends up going to paradise! * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2
The Hadith of the Man Who Killed 99 Men So the idea we get from this hadith is that any sin can be forgiven by Allah if he chooses to do so. But there is a great deal of uncertainty in Islam as to who will be forgiven and who wont. There are Hadith that say that some people who mistreated animals will go to hell in spite of doing everything else they were supposed to do. Some of the companions of Muhammad were in tears because they didnt know if they were going to heaven or hell. There is a major level of uncertainty, ambiguity, and arbitrariness in the Hadith and in the Quran as to how Allah will decide where a person will go in eternity. It says over and over again, Allah is most merciful, most
forgiving, most gracious but to whom and upon what basis? * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 The Hadith of the Man Who Killed 99 Men Its not a surprise that Muhammads God is arbitrary and unpredictable, because Muhammad himself was arbitrary and unpredictable. When Muhammad engaged in warfare and defeated an enemy, sometimes he would show mercy and other times not. He might defeat a city and when one of the inhabitants is brought before him, Muhammad restores to him his goods and sends him on his way. The next person might come to him in the same way from the same city and Muhammad would personally behead him.
In one Jewish city, Muhammad thought the inhabitants had particularly betrayed him so, after defeating them in battle, he personally beheaded 800 men! You could never know how Muhammad would treat the people that he defeated he would restore one and behead the other. It seems totally arbitrary! No way of knowing what he would do. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 The Hadith of the Man Who Killed 99 Men So a guy can murder 100 people and still go to paradise even though Gods justice remains unsatisfied. The Muslims do not understand why we believe in the necessity of atonement. Because in Islamic theology, Gods justice can be separated from his character. He can just simply forgive!
Muslims will argue that human beings can do that, so why cant Allah do that? But were not God and our character is not demonstrated by our holy nature. So it helps to understand these Hadiths in order to explain the gospel to Muslims. So from this Hadith we see that a guy who commits 100 murders can be forgiven, but a guy who commits shirk, cannot. Which is why its such a big deal to them to not believe in Jesus to do so is to commit shirk. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Meccan Surahs Versus Medinan Surahs As we have seen, the Quran is divided into 114 chapters known as
surahs. The surahs do not appear in the Quran in chronological order; instead, except for the first surah which is a brief seven verses, the longer surahs appear earlier in the Qur'an, while the shorter ones appear later. There are two types of surahs in the Quran: The Meccan Surahs written from AD 610 622 The Medinan Surahs written from AD 622 632 If you arrange the surahs in chronological order you will see a clear progression in how Muhammad handles his enemies: In the Meccan Surahs, where Muhammad is not in power, there is a lot of pleading for tolerance and religious freedom. But in Medinan Surahs, written while Muhammad is in power and the head
of the Islamic armies there is much more of an emphasis on the use of the sword and fighting the kaffirs (infidels) * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Stories of Muhammeds Later Marriages Muhammad was monogamous for 25 years when married to his first wife, Khadijah. After her death in AD 619, he, over time, married a number of women including Aisha and Zaynab. Abu Bakr, Muhammads companion and friend, had a daughter named Aisha whom he gave to Muhammad to be his wife. Muhammads marriage to Aisha is a very sensitive subject for Muslims. If you want to blow up a
conversation with a Muslim, just bring up Aisha. Some Christians bring this up first thing just to be combative. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Stories of Muhammeds Later Marriages According to the vast majority of Islamic sources, when Aisha was six years of age, she was betrothed to Muhammad by agreement with her father Abu Bakr. Those same sources indicate that that marriage became consummated at age nine. Granted, in days when life expectancy was short, women often married at a very young age. Mary might have been 14 when she was visited by the angel. But still, nine is very
young especially considering that Muhammad was in his 50s at this point. There are issues concerning child brides in Islamic countries. Muslims will argue that many of the restrictions that Christians hold concerning marriage are ridiculous. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Stories of Muhammeds Later Marriages Aisha is considered by the Sunnis to be a leader among the Muslims. A large portion of the Hadiths comes through her. She is said to be the only virgin that Muhammad married. There is no evidence that the author of the Quran found this relationship to be embarrassing. There is another situation, though, that the author of the
Quran does seem to think is embarrassing. Zaynab was Muhammads cousin and was apparently a very stunning woman. Muhammad gave Zaynab in marriage to his adopted son. But one day Muhammad came to visit, when his adopted son wasnt around, and Zaynab was there, and wasnt fully dressed, and Muhammad is said to have been smitten with her. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Stories of Muhammeds Later Marriages When word gets out that Muhammad is smitten with Zaynab, she wants to be his wife and his adopted son offers to divorce her so Muhammad can have her for his wife. Muhammad refuses at first, but then a special revelation comes
(and gets included in the Quran!) which gives Muhammad permission to marry Zaynab! The Quran explains that this exception was granted to Muhammed in order that (in the future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons The real problem was that in Arabic culture you could not marry the divorced wife of your adopted son it was considered incest. And so an entire section of the Quran had to come down from heaven to change that cultural taboo and allow Muhammad to marry Zaynab! And so he does. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Stories of Muhammeds Later Marriages
But the Quran shows clear embarrassment over this situation and there is a huge result from this: the massive diminishment of adoption in Islamic countries. Because basically the Quran says, dont call yourself the son of Muhammad if youre adopted; call yourself by your original fathers name. It basically destroys adoption in Islamic counties a beautiful concept that used to be common in Islamic countries. * James White 2016 Church History Series #40 Islamic Impact Part 2 Muhammeds Successors In AD 632, after a certain battle, Muhammad accepted a meal
from a woman whose husband he had killed in battle. It turns out, she had poisoned the food. And that is how Muhammad is thought to have died. When Muhammad dies, one of the big issues is who is going to run the Islamic state? His closest kin was a man named Ali. But the majority of Muslims followed Abu Bakr, so he becomes the first caliph or leader of the Islamic people. Under Abu Bakr, you have the first written version of the Quran. Prior to this, under Muhammad, it had largely not been committed to writing, but memorized in parts by certain people. * James White 2016 Church History Series #41 Islamic Impact Part 3
Muhammeds Successors Fifteen years later, during the days of Uthman, Islam was expanding and spreading, the people came to Uthman and said that they didnt want to have conflicting versions of the scriptures like the Jews and Christians, so they asked him to make an official version. So Uthman agreed to do this. This is known as the Uthmanic revision. Uthman sent copies of his version of the Quran to the major Islamic cities and he ordered that all the other copies of the Quran be burned. It is possible that we at least one pre-Uthmanic version of the Quran that was dug up in the 1970s. It does contain a number of variants from the current official version. Some Muslims will claim it was just a school childs project. The Quran has been transmitted in a very different way from the NT.
The NT spread by a free transmission process. The Quran was transmitted through a controlled process which is far less reliable. * James White 2016 Church History Series #41 Islamic Impact Part 3 Muhammeds Successors The next Caliph or Islamic leader is Ali. Under Ali you get the beginning of civil war among the Muslims. Alis children are slaughtered in a particular place. The death of those individuals is commemorated in Shiite countries, by walking through the streets cutting themselves with swords they are covered in blood. This is where the Sunni/Shia split takes place.
Those who follow Ali are the Shiites. The followers of Abu Bakr are called the Sunni. The Sunni make up 85% of the worlds Muslims, Shiites about 10%. Their theology is very similar on many points. They both use the same Quran. * James White 2016 Church History Series #41 Islamic Impact Part 3 Islamic Conquests https://islamandwesterncivilisation.com/posts/islam-a-religion-of-peace/historical-reality-muslim-conquests/ https://www.hopehelps.org/volunteer-appreciation-week-2018/ Class Discussion Time
https://www.weareteachers.com/moving-beyond-classroom-discussions/ *Class Discussion Time Of the things you learned today about Islam what did you find to be the most surprising or interesting? From what you have learned about Islam to this point, what are some things that you think you might want to bring up if you were to have an opportunity to witness to a Muslim? At this point, how do you feel about the idea of witnessing to a Muslim? Do you have a topic or question that you would like to see us to discuss?
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