Curriculum expectations Introduction of human systems Enzymes Ingestion-activities Stomach and Digestion- with a case study Small intestine and pancreas- video and activity

examples Accessory organs Absorption- activity examples Homeostasis Energy, Nutrients and Minerals Curriculum Expectations

Specific Expectations E1.1 evaluate the importance of various technologies, including Canadian contributions, to our understanding of internal body systems (e.g., endoscopes can be used to locate, diagnose, and surgically remove digestive system tumours; lasers can be used during surgery to destroy lung tumours; nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] imaging can be used to diagnose injuries and cardiovascular disorders, such as aneurysms) [AI, C] E2.2 perform a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection of a representative

animal, or use a mounted anatomical model, to analyse the relationships between the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems [PR, AI] E3.2 explain the anatomy of the digestive system and the importance of digestion in providing nutrients needed for energy and growth (e.g., the bodys mechanical and chemical processes digest food, which provides the proteins needed to build muscle, and the fibre, water, vitamins, and minerals needed to regulate body processes) E3.4 describe some disorders related to the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems (e.g., asthma, emphysema, ulcers, colitis, cardiac arrest, arteriosclerosis

Human Systems Organs: groups of different tissues that specialize to carry out specific or particular functions. Organ systems: a group of organs that have related functions Important to note that several organ

systems interact and depend on each other to function Importance of Digestion/the Digestive System Heterotrophs: organisms that must consume organic compounds to survive

Organic compounds (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins) are digested/ broken down in gastrointestinal tract and then absorbed and transported Supplies body with energy and raw materials for synthesis of chemical compounds Enzymes in Digestion

Recall enzymes are proteins that increase the rate at which biochemical reactions occur The enzymes in the digestive system are hydrolytic : use water to breakdown various molecules Two factors effect digestive enzymes: -Temperature -pH Generally increase in temperature= increase

enzyme activity Enzymes work in specific pH ranges Enzyme Activity Figure 1: Effect of temperature on human enzymes Figure 2: Effect of pH on digestive enzymes blue= pepsin grey= amylase Green- trypsin

Discussion Question Question/Reflection for Student: Why do most human enzymes have efficiency peaks at 37oC What impacts do cold and heat have on our body functioning?

Why is it dangerous to have a fever? What may happen to our enzymes? Recap: Physical vs. Chemical Digestion Physical/Mechanical: is the act of breaking down food using teeth, beaks or other structures in many animals as

well as contractions of the stomach Chemical: enzymes and water to break down food so that it can eventually be absorbed by body cells 4 Main Processes of The Digestion System

1. Ingestion 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 4. Egestion/ or Elimination Ingestion

Saliva Fluid secreted by salivary glands Contains amylase which breaks down complex to simpler carbohydrates Lubricates food to be swallowed Dissolves food particles At this point food can be tasted Activities: Ingestion cont.

Teeth: -incisors: specific for cutting -canine: sharp for tearing -pre-molars: grinding -molars: crushing Used for mechanical/physical digestion. They are necessary for making food into smaller particles

Ingestion cont. Esophagus Peristalsis: rhythmic, wavelike contraction of smooth muscle that

moves food through the esophagus Food formed in a bolus after being broken down by saliva and teeth enters the esophagus h5wCQU The Stomach and Digestion - Site of food storage and -

- protein digestion J-Shape organ that can store up to 1.5 L of food Movement of food in and out of stomach is regulated by sphincters Cardiac sphincter: regulates food from esophagus Pyloric sphincter: regulates food from stomach to small

intestine The Stomach and Digestion cont. There are millions of cells that line the wall of the stomach that secrete many fluids which

called collectively called gastric juice Gastric juice : Hydrochloric acid (HCl) mucus, pepsinogens and other materials Pepsinogens: enzymes that when exposed to a low pH such as conditions in the stomach, turns into its active form pepsin which is a enzyme the digests proteins What do we know about HCl? What stops HCl from burning a hole in your stomach?

Mucus A protein produced by a layer of epithelial cells that provide a protective coating It is alkaline in nature which is basic and protects lining of the stomach from both acid from HCl and pepsin from breaking

down proteins of stomach lining However when mucus is destroyed or not being produced Disorder: Stomach Ulcer Ulcer: a lesion along the surface of an organ -when the mucus membrane is destroyed a peptic ulcer can be formed resulting in tissue being burned and an allergic

reaction can become stronger resulting in blood vessels breaking down Heliobacter pylori Stomach Disorders: Ulcers cont. Case Study Have students in pairs or small groups uncover this bacteria Heliobacter pylori and other information about ulcers Prevalence, demographics, how to detect this bacteria, bacterial weight/amount, effects

on every day living/side effects, treatment etc. are all topics the students could discover Could be in the form of a report, or a presentation, or even a jigsaw activity Small Intestine Introduction Activities

http:// Easy way to get the students thinking about the small intestine is having 7m of yard, tubing etc. and having it passed around the classroom After this have them put it in a small box Small intestine is not named small because of its length rather its diameter!

Small Intestine Cont. 3 parts of the small intestine are the: Duodenum: - most digestion occurs here Jejnum: has many folds that continue

breakdown and absorption of remaining proteins and carbohydrates Ileum: less absorption occurs here, unabsorbed particles are pushed through and continued Digestion in the Small Intestine How is the small intestine protected if HCl and pepsin- soaked food is sent to it from the stomach?

Small Intestine and Pancreas Interaction Small Intestine and Pancreas Interaction Liver and Gall Bladder: Role in Digestion Absorption and Large Intestine

Colon is largest part of large intestine stores waste so that water as well as some inorganic salts, minerals and vitamins can be absorbed There are several bacteria in the large intestine such as types of E.coli that can synthesize vitamins B and K

Cellulose is a carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by humans but provides bulk Absorption: Villi, Microvilli and Lacteals Villi: small finger-like projects that

extend into the small intestine which increase surface area for absorption. Microvilli: are a microscopic projection on cell membrane Lacteals: are small vessels that transport fat to the circulatory system Homeostatic Control in Digestion Build a Body: SPONGELAB Biology

Food energy In Canada energy is measured in joules (J) or kilojoules (kJ) One calorie = 4.18 J One kcal = 4.18kJ Basal metabolic rate: the minimum amount of energy that a resting person needs to maintain life processes

Daily Energy Requirements Calculating Energy Requirements There is a way to calculate energy requirements. The equation is Energy required for 1 day= energy factor x body mass (kg) x time (24hr) Energy required for an activity= energy factor x body mass (kg) x time (hr)

Essential Nutrients Vitamins: organic molecules needed in trace amounts for normal growth and metabolic processes Minerals: elements required by the body. There are inorganic

Nutrients Minerals

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