Emotional Development Learning when and how to express
Emotional Development Learning when and how to express emotions is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between ages 2 and 6. emotional regulation: ability to control when and how emotions are expressed 1 The Marshmallow Experiment 2
Initiative Versus Guilt Initiative Guilt makes child afraid to try new activities. If parents dismiss childs emotional expressions, children may not learn emotional regulation. 3 * self-esteem self-concept Intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation 4 Play Play: most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake universal changes between ages 2 and 6 5
Peers and Parents Young children play best with peers Provide practice in: Emotional regulation Empathy Social Understanding 6 Cultural Differences in Play Play varies by culture,
gender, and age. Play is an ideal means for children to learn whatever social skills are required in the social context. Chinese children fly kites. Alaskan natives tell dreams and stories. Lapp children pretend to be reindeer. 7
Five Kinds of Play Solitary play Child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby. Onlooker play Child watches other children play. Parallel play Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together.
Associative play Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but not mutual and reciprocal. Cooperative play Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns. 8 Rough-and-Tumble Play rough-and-tumble play: mimics aggression through:
wrestling chasing hitting no intent to harm 9 Challenges for Parents Parents differ a great deal in what they believe about children and how they should act toward them. Tend to follow the child-rearing
patterns of their own parents. Need to decide on a parenting style. 10 Parenting Styles Expressions of warmth very affectionate or cold and critical Strategies for discipline how they explain, criticize, persuade, ignore, and punish
Communication listen patiently; others demand silence Expectations for maturity parents vary in standards for responsibility and selfcontrol 11 Three Patterns of Parenting Authoritarian: Characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication. Permissive: Characterized by high nurturance and communication but little
discipline, guidance, or control. Authoritative: Parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible. 12 Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting Fourth style of parenting Sometimes mistaken for permissive- but in contract this type of parenting is very careless. These parents are strikingly unaware in what their child is doing.
13 Cultural Variations Chinese, Caribbean, and African American parents are often stricter. Japanese mothers tend to use reasoning, empathy and expressions of disappointment. Specific discipline methods and family rules are less important then: parental warmth support concern
14 Children, Parents, and the New Media What do children see? Good guys as violent as bad guys
their violence depicted as justified Good guys are male and White except when all characters are Black or Latino Females of all ethnic groups are usually depicted as:
Victims or girlfriends 15 Moral Development Children develop increasingly complex moral values, judgments, and behaviors. In early childhood, children try to:
please their parents. avoid punishment. make friends. exclude enemies. The emotional development and the theory of mind make morality possible. 16 Moral Development empathy: ability to understand emotions and concerns of another person
antipathy: feelings of dislike or even hatred for another antisocial behavior: feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another 17 Physical Punishment Young children are slapped, spanked, or beaten more often than children over age 6 or under age 2. Many parents remember
being spanked themselves and think spanking works well. Some researchers agree; some do not. 18 psychological control: disciplinary technique involving threatening to withdraw love and support relies on childs feelings of guilt and gratitude to parents
time-out: disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time Social punishment 19 Becoming Boys and Girls Identity as male or female important feature of a childs self-concept. first question asked about a newborn is Boy or girl? Children become more aware of gender every year.
parents select gender-distinct: clothes blankets diapers pacifiers, etc. 20
Sex and Gender sex differences: biological differences between males and females organs hormones body type gender differences: differences in the roles and behavior of males and females prescribed by the culture 21 Psychoanalytic Theory
phallic stage: Freuds third stage of development; period from ages 3-6 penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure Oedipus complex: unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win mothers exclusive love superego: judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents 22 Electra complex: unconscious desire of girls
to replace their mother and win fathers exclusive love identification: attempt to defend ones selfconcept by taking on behaviors and attitudes of someone else; specifically the same-sex parent 23 Behaviorism Belief that all roles are learned and therefore result from nurture, not nature.
Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment. 24 Cognitive Theory gender schema: cognitive concept or general belief based on ones experiences
25 Sociocultural Theory androgyny: balance within a person of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics 26 Gender and Destiny Since human behavior is plastic, what gender
patterns should children learn? Answers vary among developmentalists, mothers, fathers, and cultures. If children respond to their own inclinations, some might choose behavior, express emotions, and develop talents that are taboo, even punished in certain cultures. 27
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