A CO 3-4 AVN CONVOY SAFETY CHAIN TEACHING PACKAGE TOP THREE ACCIDENT CAUSES FOLLOWING TOO CLOSE SPEEDING FATIGUE STANDARDS AR 55-29
AR 385-55 AR 600-55 UR 55-1 UR 385-55 UR PAM 385-15 FM 21-305 FM 55-30 V CORPS SAFETY PROGRAM SOP RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT COMMANDERS: Ensure risk management is applied to convoy operations.
Carefully select and thoroughly brief convoy commanders on their duties and responsibilities. Ensure battalion-level driver training is IAW AR 600-55. Ensure unit SOP specifically addresses duties and responsibilities of drivers, assistant drivers, and senior occupants. Enforce safety belt use in vehicles equipped with seat belts. Know the top accidents causes and address these causes and countermeasures in unit training programs. RESPONSIBILITIES CONVOY COMMANDERS:
Have knowledge of all restrictions required by Ground Precautionary Messages, Safety of Use Messages, Safety Alert Messages, etc., for vehicles in the convoy. Ensure that special attention is placed on seatbelt use.
Ensure rest stops are used and maximum driving times are IAW UR 385-55. Ensure troops are briefed on convoy speeds, catch-up speed, following distance, etc. Ensure control is established and maintained within the convoy until mission is complete.
RESPONSIBILITIES SERIAL OR MARCH UNIT COMMANDERS : Maintain positive control of convoy serial or march unit at all times. Be in a position where they can best control their convoy element. Supervise the operation of the serial or march unit and ensure break downs and other emergency procedures are responded to properly. RESPONSIBILITIES
DRIVER AND ASSISTANCE DRIVER: Have knowledge of all restrictions required by Ground Precautionary Messages, Safety of Use Messages, Safety Alert Messages, etc., for their vehicle. Use seat belts at all times. Use rest stops to stretch and relax. Use only the briefed convoy speed, catch-up speed, and following distances. Follow all directions given by convoy and serial commanders. Respond to emergency situations as needed.
RESPONSIBILITIES SENIOR OCCUPANT: Have knowledge of all restrictions required by Ground Precautionary Messages, Safety of Use Messages, Safety Alert Messages, etc., for vehicles in the convoy. Ensure seat belts are used at all times. Ensure rest stops are used and maximum driving times are IAW UR 385-55. If driver is tired take action to replace him or her. Ensure driver operates vehicle at the authorized convoy speed, catch-up speed, and following distance. Ensure driver does not violate traffic laws.
CONVOY STANDARDS Identify each march column with convoy flags (unless prohibited by host nation). All tracked vehicles in a convoy will have Rotating Amber Warning Lights (RAWLs) installed. If a tracked vehicle is travelling alone with an escort, the RAWL must be turned on. Clean lights, reflectors, reflective tape and delineator plates. Convoy must use right lane when traveling on Autobahn. Comply with inclement weather road condition standards
(UR 385-55). All over size and over weight vehicles will have a functioning RAWLs installed. This includes vehicles that CONVOY STANDARDS LEAD ESCORT VEHICLE (LEV) WILL: Be designated by convoy commander. Have a RAWL on at all times during convoy. Set and maintain pace established by the convoy commander. Check the time at start point, critical point, checkpoints, and release point. Advise the convoy commander of any obstacles or road
hazards that may cause a deviation from established route. Slow the convoy speed in preparation for exits, highway/autobahn entrances and tunnels. Will display a sign with the words Convoy Follows in English and the host nation language. CONVOY STANDARDS TRAIL ESCORT VEHICLE (TEV) WILL: Be designated by convoy commander Must be a 2 1/2 ton or larger vehicle. Must not transport personnel or hazardous material. Must not haul a trailer.
Must have a RAWL installed and used at all times during convoy. Will display a sign with the words Convoy Ahead in English and the host nation language. CONVOY STANDARDS All vehicles in convoy will adhere to the vehicle interval requirements to provide adequate space for passing vehicles. Space between vehicles in an open-column march unit will be at least 100 meter interval on autobahns and 50 meter interval on secondary roads (excluding congested areas).
When approaching congested areas march units will reduce speed and vehicle intervals. Interval space will be 25 meters. Follow speed limits identified in V Corps Safety Program SOP. CONVOY STANDARDS KEVLAR HELMETS WILL BE WORN WITH THE CHINSTRAP SECURED UNDER THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS: When driving or riding in a tactical (M series) vehicle at all times, including the motor pool. When driving or riding in a non-tactical vehicle
participating in training exercises. Reference: USAREUR Commander decision announced during USAREUR BOD 25 SEP 01. PREOPERATION REQUIREMENTS CONVOY AND SERIAL COMMANDERS WILL: Review the operating standards in USAREUR Reg 55-1. Conduct risk management of the convoy. Identify hazards along the march route. A physical reconnaissance of the march route should be conducted. Prepare and distribute convoy strip maps to each driver during the pre-mission briefing.
Limit march units to 25 vehicles and march serials to no more than 5 march units (under normal circumstances). Ensure at least 5 minutes between march serials. PREOPERATIONAL CHECKS CONVOY AND SERIAL COMMANDER WILL ENSURE: Drivers are aware of any restrictions required by special permits (e.g., hazardous cargo and special hauling permits). Drivers and assistant drivers possess valid OF-346.
Radio checks are completed. Each vehicle has a strip map. A safety briefing is given to all participants, should be done as part of the pre-mission brief. Convoy and catch-up speeds have been briefed. All trailer brake lines and safety chains have been checked. PREOPERATIONAL CHECKS (Contd) CONVOY AND SERIAL COMMANDER WILL ENSURE: Intervals have been discussed. Safety equipment (RAWLs, first aid kits, and warning triangles) is present for each vehicle IAW AR and UR 38555.
Convoy signs are placed on the lead and trail vehicles. Required security measures are implemented. Hazards or threats have been identified along the route. Rest stop are identified. Break down procedures are in place and understood. POST OPERATIONAL CHECKS CONVOY AND SERIAL COMMANDER WILL ENSURE: Ensure all vehicles and personnel are accounted for. Ensure all accidents no matter how minor have been reported to the chain of command.
Debrief drivers to identify hazards identified during convoy and report them to the convoy control center and chain of command. Identify weak drivers who may need additional training. Make notes for lessons learned for future convoys with this unit. ID and manage risks as conditions change. SUMMARY Convoys that are conducted to standard normally involve less risk. Leaders should take steps now to ensure drivers training
and vehicle maintenance are to standard. Good risk management can identify most hazards and leaders can take steps to reduce or eliminate those hazards. Since many accidents involve speeding, following too close and fatigue it is best to focus efforts to reduce these causes. Preoperational checks can identify last minute issues that can create hazards. Leadership is key to reducing the risk for convoys.
Andrew, Caroline, John Biles and Erin Tolley. 2012. "Follow the Leader? Immigration, Integration and Inclusion in Ottawa" in Caroline Andrew, John Biles, Meyer Burstein, Victoria Esses and Erin Tolley eds. Immigration, Integration and Inclusion in Ontario Cities. McGill-Queen's University Press.
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[PS02] Dorina C. Petriu, H. Shen, "Applying UML Performance Profile: Graph Grammar-Based Derivation of LQN Models from UML Specifications", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Modelling Techniques and Tools for Performance Evaluation, Springer LNCS 794, pp. 159-177, 2002.
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