Applying the Results of the ABC Braille Study to Real-Life Teaching: One Teachers Interpretation Anna M. Swenson Braille Literacy Consultant [email protected] ! or the To contract or not to contract? That was the question that launched
the ABC* Braille Study. Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille 2 The ABC Braille Study Research focus: Are there differences in the childrens reading & writing performance based on whether they were initially taught in
contracted or uncontracted braille? Longitudinal study, 2002-2007 Children w/o other disabilities in grades pre-k through 4 Half of teachers started students with contracted braille, half with uncontracted. (Teachers choice) Team of researchers Qualitative data: interviews, observations, classroom environment; social interaction Quantitative data: time for instruction, reading assessments, videos of hand movements, writing analysis 3 The National Reading Panel
& the Reading First Initiative Reading First Area Phonemic Awareness Phonics (Decoding / Spelling) Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension ABC Braille Study Assessment TPRI (Texas Primary Reading Inventory) TPRI; Brigance (Spelling) Johns Basic Reading Inventory
(BRI) Johns BRI Brigance Johns BRI Quiz Yourself! 5 ABC Braille Study Quiz Question 1: The majority of the young braille readers in the study were good spellers.
TRUE Question 2: Children who learned uncontracted braille first were better spellers than those who started with contracted braille. FALSE Question 3: Students made very few braille errors (e.g., reversals) when reading aloud. TRUE 6 Quiz continued . . . Question 4: Students who knew more contractions read faster. FALSE
Question 5: Most kindergarten and first grade braille readers demonstrated age appropriate skills in phonemic awareness and phonics. TRUE 7 Quiz continued . . . Question 6: Students who learned more contractions earlier in instruction had higher scores in the areas of vocabulary, decoding, and comprehension than those who started with uncontracted
braille and learned contractions more slowly. TRUE Question 7: The majority of the studys participants, none of whom had a disability other than their visual impairment, performed as well as their sighted peers on tests of vocabulary and reading comprehension. FALSE 8 Major Findings (Emerson, Holbrook, & DAndrea, 2009)
Students [with no additional disabilities] who were introduced to more contractions earlier in instruction performed better on reading measures, such as vocabulary, decoding, and comprehension. Students who are blind, regardless of whether they started with contracted or uncontracted braille, are falling behind their sighted peers and not acquiring reading skills at the rate they should. 9 Implications for Real-Life Teaching:
One Teachers Interpretation 2. The Role of the 1. Teaching the TVI in Teaching Braille Code Reading Implications 3. Assessment 4. Literacy Instruction 10
1. Implications for Teaching the Braille Code it seems that the introduction of contractions early in a students reading process is associated with higher literacy performance later in the students career. (Emerson, Holbrook, & DAndrea, 2009) 11 The code is not the problem Whether we start with uncontracted or contracted braille is less important than introducing contractions early and as rapidly
as the student can master them. (For students with no other disabilities) 12 Options Begin with uncontracted braille: Alphabet first Materials in uncontracted / customized braille Introduce contractions as rapidly as possible Begin with contracted braille: High frequency contracted words (e.g., go, like,
do), familiar names, & motivating words Alphabet Fully contracted braille materials 13 Other ABC Findings & Recommendations Related to Braille Teach reading with two hands from the beginning Teach correct fingering on the brailler from the beginning Instill the habit of checking work
Future research question: Does the use of technology increase the quantity and quality of students output? 14 2. Implications for the Role of the TVI in Teaching Reading or Whose job is it to teach reading? Can we separate the braille code from the teaching of reading for children who are learning braille? (Holbrook, 2008) We are ALL teachers of reading.
3. Implications for Assessment Know where our students are performing in key areas of literacy: Braille Code Knowledge Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, & Spelling Fluency Vocabulary & Comprehension
Writing 16 Assessment Guidelines Assess general literacy areas, in addition to braille- specific skills. Partner with the classroom (or other) teacher for general ed assessments. Use a broad range of assessments. Collect data to show progress over time. Involve students in monitoring their own progress. 17
Monitoring Progress Accurate and rapid recognition of the letters of the alphabet is a strong predictor of future reading achievement. (Adams, 1990) 18 Commercially Available Braille-Specific Assessment Tools Assessment KIT of Informal Tools for Academic Students with
VI (Includes Johns Basic Reading Inventory) www.tsbvi.edu EVALS: Evaluating VI Students Using Alternate Learning Standards Emphasizing the Expanded Core Curriculum www.tsbvi.edu ABLS: Assessment of Braille Literacy Skills www.theansweris4.net 19 Informal Reading Inventories Purpose
Graded word lists (words in isolation) Graded passages for oral and/or silent reading Data collection Miscues Reading Rate Comprehension Anecdotal observations Scoring Guides: Independent, Instructional, Frustration levels General Education Assessments (DIBELS, DRA . . .) Why participate?
Challenges: Braille errors vs. reading errors h5 he h(en) he Picture clues Contractions
21 Assessing Reading Level in the Early Grades: A Comparison Chart 22 APH Early Braille Trade Books Sunshine Kits 1 and 2
http://tech.aph.org/ebt/ Sets of early reading books from The Wright Group (Sunshine and Twigg Series) Labels for contracted and uncontracted braille On-line book info: reading level, summary, contractions, punctuation marks, instructional activities On-line data collection for individual students.
23 4. Implications for Literacy Instruction A point to be taken from these data is that for any young student who is blind, instruction needs to focus on reading processes, regardless of the specifics of how the braille is introduced. (Emerson, Holbrook, & DAndrea, 2009) Work on ALL key reading processes from the beginning: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, & Comprehension 24
Word Study Includes Phonemic awareness Phonics (Decoding & Spelling) Letter / contraction recognition Part of a TOTAL reading program NOT a prerequisite for fluency, vocabulary development, & comprehension Relate word study to the materials the child is reading
25 Yippy-Day-Yippy-Doo! Reading level E, Reading Recovery Level 7-8 I run down the road. Yippy-day-yippy-doo! I run down the road, and my shadow runs, too. The sun goes away. Yippy-day-yippy-doo! The sun goes away, and my shadow does, too.
26 M M ipp oo y! Ma yM ip py - Using Yippy-Day for Phonemic Awareness Activities
Y P P I Z Y A Z Y P ZIP ! 0
Z0 SHIPP Y-SHA Y-SHIP SHOO PY! 27 Using Yippy-Day to Teach Phonics Skills Common letter / sound clusters (phonograms
or rimes): _ ing, _ide, _ope, _op, _all, _own Long vowel silent e pattern: ride, slide, bike, rope Two sounds of ow, as in down and shadow 28 Using Yippy-Day to Teach Contractions Teach contractions at different levels: Targeted and practiced for mastery Discussed, but not mastered Told, but not discussed.
Yippy-Day Contractions & Punctuation Marks and (8), the (14), day (10), to (2) ing (3), ow (12), sh (8), st (5) italic sign, capital sign, comma, exclamation mark, hyphen, period 29 Teaching Phonics & Spelling with the Word PlayHouse (APH) Consonant substitution Vowel substitution Rhyming words
Phonics rules Introduction of contractions 30 Flash Strips Strip 1: slide ride bike hide
Teachers of students with visual impairments should continue to monitor their students reading fluency as one useful benchmark of progress in reading. (Emerson, Holbrook, & DAndrea, 2009) "Children do not need to know all the letters or sounds, or even very many words, before beginning to read text. " (Pinnell & Fountas, 1998) 32 Fluency means
reading accurately reading at a normal rate noticing punctuation marks using expression understanding what you read 33 Teacher-Made Story The Slide Book Page 1: go Ana Page 2: go Ana go Page 3: go go Ana
go go Andrew Page 4: go Ana go go go 34 Promoting Fluency Demonstrate what fluent reading sounds like. Model appropriate rate, phrasing, and expression. Expect students to reread books until achieving fluency. Help students develop more efficient hand and finger movements during rereading. Record students reading, and have them critique their own fluency. (student rubric)
Monitor oral reading fluency regularly (e.g., through an IRI), and keep data to show progress over time. Monitor silent reading fluency regularly once children are independent readers. 35 Vocabulary & Comprehension Across the years of the study, 24 of 32 students in Grade 1 were reading below grade level, 18 of 30 students in Grade 2 were reading below grade level, and about half the students in Grades 3 and 4 were reading below grade level. this consistently poor performance in reading across the grades works against
the findings from the kindergarten and Grade 1 TPRI, which showed that these young children had generally acquired the basic mechanics of reading. (Emerson, Holbrook, & DAndrea, 2009) 36 Concept Development: The Foundation for Reading Real World Concepts learned through Hands-on experiences Oral language Read-alouds
Literacy Concepts learned through Immersion in braille Modeling Approximations Read-alouds Link real world concepts to literacy for meaningful and motivating instruction 37 Linking Concepts to Literacy: Maxs Home Depot Book
Square tile Square of carpet Light switch Outlet and plug Screws (big and little) Chain Tape measure Nuts and bolts (big & little) Piece of wood 38 Vocabulary: Bumping into Spicy Tasty Words that Catch Your Tongue
(Bauman, J., Ware, D., Edwards, E. , 2007) Motivation: Recognize the power of emotional connections with words Promote curiosity about words in & out of school, in books and in conversations Word Detective Increase our use of interesting words when we talk and write with our students Keep track of interesting new words with the student in a note taker or computer file, on tape, etc. Read Aloud
and Use Blooms Taxonomy 40 Monitor Students Reading Both classroom reading and take-home Assist with book selection, and preview contractions, vocabulary, & concepts Teach / reinforce comprehension strategies Teach students to monitor their own comprehension Check for understanding on a regular basis If not done in the classroom, assess comprehension
regularly using an informal reading inventory to show progress over time. 41 Basic Comprehension Checklist Before Reading Read the title Ask about the pictures Predict what the story might be about During Reading Reread a part if it doesnt make sense
Make a Mind Movie after each paragraph or page Make personal connections After Reading Reread the book until it is fluent Retell the story in your own words and/or Summarize the most important events/facts Check your predictions. Were you right? Talk to Your Book Reading Strategies Folder P = Prediction C = Connection
I = Inference Wow! DU = Dont Understand = Difficult Word Electronic Registration Packet 1. PowerPoint Slides 2. Resources and References 3. Book Level Comparison Chart 45
Parting Words Both teachers knew that they needed to look at the whole picture of braille literacy, providing reading and writing instruction that was integrated with the aspects of highquality literacy instruction, emphasizing motivation and comprehension in tandem with learning the code of reading." (Barkley, Herlich, & Sacks, 2010) 46
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