Ann Bucklin University of Connecticut Avery Point, USA

Ann Bucklin University of Connecticut  Avery Point, USA

Ann Bucklin University of Connecticut Avery Point, USA Shuhei Nishida University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Sigrid Schiel Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany Peter Wiebe Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA Preliminary Synthesis Conclusions Integrated morphological and molecular systematic analysis: CMarZ cruises include both expert taxonomists and geneticists, who work together toward accurate descriptions of zooplankton species diversity. Global surveys: CMarZ Steering Group members are working together to achieve global sampling from ships of opportunity and dedicated cruises. Biodiversity of the deep sea: CMarZ is providing new views of zooplankton species biodiversity in the very deepest part of the world oceans and discovering new species in many taxonomic groups. Preliminary Synthesis Conclusions DNA Barcoding: Rosetta Stone for Zooplankton Amphipods 310 species (529 individuals) from Sargasso Sea (2006) and eastern Atlantic (2007). [CMarZ contact: Ann Bucklin] Gastropods Chaetognaths Gastropods Ostracods Nemerteans Polychaetes

Cephalopods Euphausiids Decapods Siphonophores Copepods Hydromedusae Scyphzoa 0.1 MtCOI DNA barcodes resolve major taxonomic groups of zooplankton. Ann Bucklin et al. (in prep) Hippopodius hippopus Limacina helicina Salpa cylindrica MtCOI DNA barcodes are accurate and reliable identifiers of species for most zooplankton groups. 41 species (87 individuals) from ArcOD cruises to Arctic Ocean, 2004 2008 [CMarZ contacts: Ann Bucklin and Russ Hopcroft] 127 species of Cnidarians (Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa) from North Atlantic and North Pacific. [CMarZ contact: Brian Ortman and Ann Bucklin] 67 species (98 sequences for mtCOI and mt12 S rRNA) from near Sanriku, Japan; Oncaeidae copepods from the Mediterranean Sea. [CMarZ contacts: Shuhei Nishida and Ryuiji Machida] 103 species from China Sea. [CMarZ contact: Sun Song] Zooplankton Diversity Phylum 1

2 Foraminifera Actinopoda 3 4 Cercozoa Ciliophora 5 Cnidaria 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ctenophora Rotifera Platyhelminthes Nematomorpha Nemertea Annelida Mollusca 13 Arthropoda 14 Chaetognatha 15 Chordata Taxon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 TOTALS TOTALS (no Protista) Foraminifera Acantharea Polycystinea (Radiolaria) Phaeodarea (Radiolaria) Aloricate Ciliata Tintinnida Hydromedusae Siphonophora Cubomedusae Scyphomedusae Ctenophora Rotifera Platyhelminthes Nectonema Nemertinea

Polychaeta Gastropoda Cephalopoda Cladocera Ostracoda Isopoda Copepoda Mysidacea Amphipoda Euphausiacea Decapoda Insecta Chaetognatha Appendicularia Pyrosoma Doliolida Salpidae Species 49 150 350 350 150 300 842 160 18 161 90 50? 3? 5 99 110 144 370 8 169 20 2000 700 400 86

50 5 93 64 8 17 45 7,013 5,664 Zooplankton Diversity New species descriptions (published) from CMarZ: Phylum Cnidaria Russ Hopcroft & Dhugal Lyndsay Arthropods Annelids Chaetognaths TOTALS Janet Bradford Grieve Group Hydromedusae Narcomedusae Siphonophores Scyphomedusae Amphipods Copepods Ostracods Mysids Polychaetes New Species 2 1 1 2 1 19 3

49 1 2 81 New Genus 1 1 New Family 1 1 1 4 1 Estimated new species discovered = over 100. CMarZ Steering Group members are working on group-by-group analyses, including: - Handbook of the Radiolaria. Monographic publication now in press. [Demetrio Boltovskoy] Martin Angel - Taxonomy, phylogeography, and phylogeny of chaetognaths. [Annelies Pierrot-Bults] - Atlantic atlas for the planktonic ostracods: Published on NHM (London, UK) website. [Martin Angel] D. Boltovskoy Distribution and Abundance: Zooplankton Species Discovery in Southeast Asia Shuhei Nishida (Ocean Research Institute, Univ. of Tokyo, Japan) Shuhei Nishida and CMarZ / JSPS colleagues have carried out field sampling, with comprehensive taxonomic analysis, throughout SE Asia. New species counts are growing: - 15 new species of mysids (Murano et al., 2008) - 1 new genus of copepods (Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008) - 6 new species of calanoid copepods (Nishida et al., in prep)

- 2 new species of talitrid amphipods (Othman & Azman, 2007) - 1 new species of harpactacoid copepod (Shimono et al., 2007) Training workshops complement research collaborations: - JSPS CMarZ-Asia Workshop on Zooplankton Biodiversity, including census of jellyfishes and jellyfish fisheries in Viet Nam, coral reef dynamics. - LIPI-JSPS Workshop on Zooplankton Biodiversity in Southeast Asia, sampling from coral reefs, mangroves, sandy shores, and estuaries. Distribution and Abundance: Zooplankton Diversity of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean Sigrid Schiel (Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany) A comprehensive CMarZ biodiversity survey was carried out on a meridional transit of the Atlantic Ocean in 2007 on RV Polarstern. Deep-sea sampling was carried out to a maximum depth of 5,038 m. 65,869 specimens of 473 species have been sorted and identified on board. 2,043 specimens of 389 species were collected for barcoding. At-sea barcoding determined 122 DNA sequences for 66 species. At-sea taxonomic training workshops were organized for students. Net 4 Net 3 Net 2 Net 1 MOCNESS 10m2 (335 m) >5000-1000m MOCNESS 1m2 (335 m) 1000-0m Multinet 0.5 m2 (100m) 1000-0m Cheryl Clark Hopcroft Distribution and Abundance: Coastal Ecosystem Assessment in Africa Hans M. Verheye, Marine & Coastal Management, South Africa NML PPEML WBEML

OrangeRiver RiverMouth Mouth Orange HondeklipBay Bay Hondeklip CapeTown Town Cape 34 SHBML SARP 36 16 29 BENEFIT Programme: BENguela Environment Fisheries Interaction & Training: Dedicated environmental monitoring along 5 transects in fisheries key areas along the west coasts of Angola, Namibia and South Africa, using comparable sampling and analysis methodologies 18 20 PPl leettt teennb beer

rgg B Baay y CapeColumbine Columbine Cape Annual Recruit Biomass Surveys (May/June) M Mo osss seel l BBa ayy DoringBay Bay Doring 32 22 24 PPo orrt tA Alf lfrre edd FRS Africana CCa appe e SSt t.. F Frra annc ciiss

PPo orrt t EEl liizza abbe etthh 30 CCa appe eA Ag guulh lhaas s CCa appe e IIn nffan anta ta CMarZ is partnering with the South African government for environmental monitoring to collect zooplankton samples from coastal waters around Africa, including the complex and variable Benguela Current coastal ecosystem. Environmental monitoring and pelagic fish stock assessment surveys in South Africa: Zooplankton collected and analyzed from transects along SA continental shelf 26 28 November 2002 Spawner Biomass Survey

AFR171 Annual Spawner Biomass Surveys (November) 30 Hondeklip Bay 31 Doring Bay 32 Lambert's Bay Columbine 33 Port Alfred Cape Town 34 Port Elizabeth Mossel Bay Agulhas 35 36 37 38 16 17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Distribution and Abundance: Zooplankton Diversity in the Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean Vijayalakshmi Nair, National Institute of Oceanography, Kochi, India Comprehensive biodiversity survey using collections during 20032006. Major groups were identified into species: 20 chaetognaths (2 new species), 199 calanoid copepods, 74 larval fish, 70 decapods, 7 mysids, 10 appendicularians, 8 ostracods. Phenomenal changes in chaetognath community: 1963, 1979 and 2005. Population density reduced to half; species diversity doubled. Biogeographical distributions characterized for the region. Biogeography of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean Vijayalakshmi Nair, National Institute of Oceanography, Kochi, India Tropical zone Maximum diversity Indo-Pacific species Subtropical zone Cosmopolitan species Surfacing of meso and bathyplanktonic species Transitional zone Maximum faunistic contrast, overlapping of cold & warm water species Distribution and Abundance: Zooplankton Species Discovery in the Celebes Sea Larry Madin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., USA Continuing analysis of

samples is yielding a treasuretrove of new, rare, and/or undescribed species: Regions of Exploration - black lobate ctenophore (genus Bathocyroe) - polychaete worm with prehensile tentacles. Blue-water SCUBA dives yielded salps, medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores. Trawl collections captured midwater fishes, crustaceans, coronate medusae, as well as pteropods and pyrosomes. Examples of Societal Impact to Date Monitoring Ballast Water in Argentine Ports: Project involves monitoring the ballast water of transoceanic ships. Salinity is measured and plankton samples are collected and distributed among 10 specialists in various planktonic groups for identification of both freshwater and marine zooplankton. [Demetrio Boltovskoy] Impacts of a Marine Bioinvasion: Sampling from the Caspian Sea showed striking impacts of an alien zooplankton species. Satellitederived chlorophyll-a concentrations was significantly correlated with biomass of the invasive predatory ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. By consuming grazing zooplankton, M. leidyi may have caused levels of Chl a to rise to unprecedented values (9mg /m3) in the southern Caspian Sea. [Ahmet Kideys] Kideys, A.E. et al. (2008) Research Letters in Ecology Current Limits to Knowledge KNOWN: ~7,000 described species of marine metazoan and protozoan holo-zooplankton. UNKNOWN: There are estimated to be many times more plankton species in the world

oceans than are currently described. Taxonomic groups where species discovery is particularly likely include fragile and rare groups, and cosmopolitan species whose ranges span more than one ocean basin. UNKNOWABLE: All regions of the deep-sea and many unexplored regions and biodiversity hotspots are certain to yield many new species; fragile species will require in situ collection by divers, ROVs or submersibles. Developing Technology DNA barcoding: CMarZ is sequencing a selected barcode gene most usually the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene for each of the 7,000 described species of zooplankton. Zooplankton metagenomics: CMarZ is pioneering metagenomic analysis (i.e., the study of genomes recovered from environmental samples) of all metazoans collected by plankton nets. DNA microarrays: DNA barcode database will be used to fabricate DNA chips with recognition sequences for known species to be used for routine sample analysis and eventually autonomous and remote analysis of zooplankton species diversity. Visualization & Communication Acknowledgments CMarZ Steering Group Members Shown here with Japanese colleagues at the University of Tokyo, Japan Programmatic and scientific support provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research funding from NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, US NSF Biological Oceanography, US NSF Office of Polar Programs, and many other sources.

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