Chapter 4 Brain Anatomy 2013 Cengage Learning. All

Chapter 4 Brain Anatomy  2013 Cengage Learning. All

Chapter 4 Brain Anatomy 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Terminology to Describe the Nervous System Terms used to describe location when referring

to the nervous system include: Ventral: towards the chest/stomach Dorsal: towards the back Anterior: towards the front Posterior: towards the rear Medial: towards the midline Lateral: away from the midline 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. For an interactive demo on planes for anatomical directions: http://www.med.harvard.edu/aanlib/cases/caseNA/pb9.htm

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Contralateral 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ipsilateral For example if the motor tracts (set of axons) in the right side of the spinal cord are damaged, there will be a motor loss in the right

side of the body. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Terminology to Describe the Nervous

System Central nervous system (CNS): the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS): connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body; has two parts Somatic nervous system: consists of axons conveying messages from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the

muscles for controlling muscle movements 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Terminology to Describe the Nervous System (contd.) Autonomic nervous system: controls the heart, intestines,

and other organs Has some cell bodies within the brain or spinal cord or in clusters along the sides of the spinal cord 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Autonomic Nervous System The autonomic nervous system sends and receives messages to regulate the automatic behaviors of the body (heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion, etc.)

Regulate the body's unconscious actions Divided into two subsystems: The sympathetic nervous system The parasympathetic nervous system 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Autonomic Nervous System (contd.) The sympathetic nervous system is a network of nerves that prepares the organs for rigorous activity: Increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, etc. (fight or flight response)

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Autonomic Nervous System (contd.) The parasympathetic nervous system facilitates vegetative (nutrition, respiration, etc.), nonemergency response responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest"

activities when the body is at rest Decreases functions increased by the sympathetic nervous system Dominant during our relaxed states Works to save energy (decrease blood pressure and heart rate, increase digestive rate) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Autonomic Nervous System (contd.) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Autonomic Nervous System (contd.) The sympathetic nervous system mostly uses

norepinephrine Parasympathetic nervous system mostly release acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Because the two systems use different transmitters, certain drugs excite or inhibit one system or the other. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Autonomic Nervous System (contd.) For example, cold remedies exert most of their effects by blocking parasympathetic activity. Because the flow of sinus fluids is a parasympathetic response, drugs that block the parasympathetic system inhibit sinus flow.

The side effects of cold remedies stem from anti-parasympathetic activities:They increase heart rate and inhibit salivation and digestion 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Spinal Cord Spinal cord: part of the CNS found within the spinal column (or called spine)

Communicates with the sense organs and muscles, except those of the head Bell-Magendie law: entering dorsal roots carry sensory information and exiting ventral roots carry motor information Cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord, called the dorsal root ganglia 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Spinal Cord (contd.)

The spinal cord is comprised of: Grey matter: located in the center of the spinal cord and is densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites White matter: composed mostly of myelinated axons that carries information from the gray matter to the brain or other areas of the spinal cord. It is the myelin that gives the white matter its glossy white color.

Each segment sends sensory information to the brain and receives motor commands 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Grey matter: the darker inner parts White matter: the whiter outer parts Grey matter: the darker outer parts White matter: the inner whiter parts

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Hindbrain Three major divisions of the brain include:

Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Hindbrain (contd.) The hindbrain consists of the:

Medulla Pons Cerebellum Located at the posterior portion of the brain Hindbrain structures, the midbrain, and other central structures of the brain combine and make up the brain stem 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Hindbrain (contd.) The medulla: Located just above the spinal cord and could be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal cord

Responsible for vital reflexes such as breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing Damage to the medulla is fatal Cranial nerves: allow the medulla to control sensations from the head, muscle movements in the head, and many parasympathetic outputs to the organs

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Hindbrain (contd.) Pons Lies on each side of the medulla (ventral and anterior) Along with the medulla, contains the reticular formation and raphe system Works in conjunction to increase arousal and readiness of other parts of the brain

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Hindbrain (contd.) The reticular formation: one of several brain areas that control the motor areas of the spinal cord Sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and

attention The raphe system also sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brains readiness to respond to stimuli 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Hindbrain (contd.) Cerebellum:

Structure located in the hindbrain with many deep folds Helps regulate motor movement, balance, and coordination Also important for shifting attention between auditory and visual stimuli 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Midbrain The midbrain contains the following structures: Tectum: roof of the midbrain, responsible for auditory and visual reflexes. Superior colliculus & inferior colliculus: processes sensory information Tegmentum: contains nuclei for cranial nerves and part of the reticular formation

Substantia nigra: gives rise to the dopaminecontaining pathway facilitating readiness for movement 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain

The forebrain is the most anterior and prominent part of the mammalian brain and consists of two cerebral hemispheres Consists of the outer cortex and subcortical regions Outer portion is known as the cerebral cortex Each side receives sensory information and controls motor movement from the

opposite (contralateral) side of the body 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.) The limbic system consists of a number of

other interlinked structures that form a border around the brainstem Includes the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex Associated with motivation, emotion, drives, and aggression 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.) Subcortical regions are structures of the brain that lie underneath the cortex

Subcortical structures of the forebrain include: Thalamus: receive their input from sensory systems, such as vision, and transmit information to specific areas of the cerebral cortex 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Forebrain (contd.) Hypothalamus Small area near the base of the brain Conveys messages to the pituitary gland to alter the release of hormones Associated with behaviors such as eating, drinking, sexual behavior and other motivated behaviors

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.) Hypothalamus 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.) Pituitary gland: hormone producing gland found at the base of the hypothalamus Basal ganglia: comprised of the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus

pallidus Associated with planning of motor movement, and aspects of memory and emotional expression Also important for attention, language planning 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Forebrain (contd.) Pituitary gland: hormone producing gland found at the base of the hypothalamus Basal ganglia: comprised of the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus Associated with planning of motor movement, and aspects of memory and emotional expression

Also important for attention, language planning 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.)

Basal forebrain is comprised of several structures that lie on the dorsal surface of the forebrain Contains the nucleus basalis: Receives input from the hypothalamus and basal ganglia Sends axons that release acetylcholine to the cerebral cortex Key part of the brains system for arousal,

wakefulness, and attention 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.) Basal forebrain 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Forebrain (contd.) Hippocampus is a large structure located between the thalamus and cerebral cortex Toward the posterior portion of the forebrain

Critical for storing certain types of memory, particularly new events 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Ventricles The central canal is a fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord

The ventricles are four fluid-filled cavities within the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear fluid found in the brain and spinal cord Provides cushioning for the brain Reservoir of hormones and nutrition for the brain and spinal cord Meninges are membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Ventricles The brain has no pain receptors, but the meninges do Swollen blood vessels in the meninges are the cause of migraine headaches

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Cerebral Cortex The cerebral cortex: most prominent part of the mammalian brain; consists of the cellular layers on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres Divided into two halves Joined by two bundles of axons called the corpus callosum and the anterior

commissure More highly developed in humans than other species 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. If we compare mammalian species, we see differences in the size of the cerebral cortex and the degree of folding

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Cerebral Cortex As the proportion devoted to the forebrain increases, the relative sizes of the midbrain and medulla decrease. The cerebellum occupies a remarkably constant percentageapproximately 13% of any mammalian brain. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Contains up to six distinct laminae (layers) There are variations in the thickness of the respective layers from area to area For example, because the stellate cells of layer IV are specialized for receiving sensory signals from the thalamus, layer IV is extremely thick in areas of

sensory cortex. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Cells of the cortex are also divided into columns Neurons in a given vertical column often form a mini-circuit that performs a single function

Somatosensory cortex below has function in sense of touch, heat, pain 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Organization of the Cerebral Cortex (contd.) The four lobes of the cerebral cortex include

the following: Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Frontal lobe 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

(Deep sulcus) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Occipital Lobe

Located at the posterior end of the cortex Highly responsible for visual input Known as striate cortex or primary visual cortex Damage can result in cortical blindness

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Occipital Lobe A person with cortical blindness has normal eyes and pupillary reflexes, but no conscious visual perception and no visual imagery (not even in dreams).

People who suffer eye damage become blind, but if they have an intact occipital cortex and previous visual experience, they can still imagine visual scenes and can still have visual dreams The eyes provide the stimulus and the visual cortex provides the experience. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Parietal Lobe Contains the postcentral gyrus (primary somatosensory cortex) Primary target for touch sensations and information from muscle-stretch receptors and joint receptors Also responsible for processing and integrating information about eye, head and body positions from information sent from

muscles and joints 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Parietal Lobe (contd.) Brain surgeons sometimes anesthetize the

scalp but leave the brain awake. If during this process they lightly stimulate the postcentral gyrus, people report tingling sensations on the opposite side of the body. The parietal lobe is essential for spatial information as well as numerical information Example: using ones fingers to count represents an overlap of spatial and numerical tasks

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. The Temporal Lobe Target for auditory information and processing spoken language (left temporal lobe) Also responsible for complex aspects of vision, (including perception of movement and face recognition) and some emotional and motivational

behaviors Klver-Bucy syndrome associated with temporal lobe damage (monkeys fail to display normal fears and anxieties after temporal lobe damage). They put almost anything they find into their mouths and attempt to pick up snakes and lighted matches 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Frontal Lobe Contains the prefrontal cortex and the precentral gyrus Precentral gyrus: also known as the primary motor cortex; responsible for the control of fine motor movement Prefrontal cortex: the integration center for all sensory information and other areas of the cortex (most anterior portion of the frontal lobe),

because its dendrites have up to 16 times as many dendritic spines as neurons in other cortical areas 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Frontal Lobe (contd.) Prefrontal cortex (contd.) Responsible for higher functions such as abstract thinking and planning Responsible for our ability to remember recent events and information (working memory) People with damage to the prefrontal cortex exhibit delayed-response task:

have to respond to something they see or hear after a delay 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. How Do the Parts Work Together? Various parts of the cerebral cortex do not work independently of each other All areas of the brain communicate with

each other, but no single central processor exists that puts it all together The binding problem refers to how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain produce a perception of a single object Perhaps the brain binds activity in different areas when they produce synchronous waves of activity 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. How Do the Parts Work Together? For binding to occur: A person perceives two sensations as happening at the same time and in the

same place Example: a ventriloquist uses the visual stimulus to alter the response of the auditory cortex (see this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLjYJE Xl8f4 ) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

How Do the Parts Work Together? If you see a light flash once while you hear two beeps, you will sometimes think you saw the light flash twice (see the illusion in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3Z1cxA 2Tp0 )

Try the illusion also with no sound. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. How Do the Parts Work Together? People with damage to the parietal cortex have trouble locating objects in space If they see a display such as

they might report seeing a green triangle and a red square 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

How Do the Parts Work Together? See also the rubber hand illusion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sxwn1w7MJvk Subjects were positioned with their left hand hidden out of sight. They saw a lifelike rubber left hand in front of them. The experimenters stroked both the subjects hidden left hand and the visible rubber hand with a paintbrush. The experiment showed that if the two hands were stroked synchronously and in the same direction, the subjects began to

experience the rubber hand as their own. When asked to use their right hand to point to their left hand, most of the time they pointed toward the rubber hand. If the real and rubber hands were stroked in different directions or at different times, the subjects did not experience the rubber hand as their own. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Research Methods Main categories of research methods to study the brain include those that attempt to: Examine the effects of brain damage Examine the effects of stimulating a brain area Record brain activity during behavior Correlate brain anatomy with behavior

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Effects of Brain Damage Brain damage can produce an inability to recognize faces, an inability to perceive motion, changes in emotional responses, and many more effects Ablation: destroying tissue and leaving it in

place Lesion: damage to a brain area Stereotaxic instrument: used to damage structures in the brain 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Effects of Brain Damage (contd.)

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Effects of Brain Damage (contd.) Transcranial magnetic stimulation: application of an intense magnetic field to a portion of the scalp to temporarily deactivate neurons below the magnet by depolarising neurons Allows researchers to study behavior with

a brain area active, then inactive, then active again 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Effects of Brain Stimulation Stimulation of a brain area should increase behavior Optogenetics: a technique that allows researchers to turn on activity in targeted neurons by a device that shines a laser within the brain Electrodes can probe the brain of a person

undergoing brain surgery A limitation is that complex behaviors depend on temporal pattern of activity in many areas 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Recording Brain Activity Recording brain activity involves using a variety of noninvasive methods, including:

Electroencephalograph (EEG): records electrical activity produced by various brain regions Can produce evoked potentials that selfreports sometimes do not reveal 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Recording Brain Activity (contd.) Magnetoencephalograph (MEG): similar to EEG but measures faint magnetic fields generated by brain activity instead Positron-emission tomography (PET): records emission of radioactivity from injected radioactive chemicals to produce a highresolution image

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Recording Brain Activity (contd.) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): modified version of an MRI that uses oxygen consumption in the brain to provide a moving and detailed picture Safer and less expensive than PET Comparison tasks are used to compare the brain pictures while person is engaged in

different activities and recordings can allow researchers to predict the behavior 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Correlating Brain Anatomy with

Behavior The process of relating skull anatomy to behavior is known as phrenology One of the first ways used to study the brain Focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. Although both of those ideas have a basis in

reality,phrenology extrapolated beyond empirical knowledge in a way that departed from science. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Correlating Brain Anatomy with

Behavior (contd.) Correlating brain activity with behavior can involve the identifying of peculiar behaviors and looking for abnormal brain structures or function These abnormal brain structures can be identified using: Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Correlating Brain Anatomy with Behavior (contd.) Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) involves the injection of a dye (contrast material) into the blood and a passage of xrays through the head

Scanner is rotated slowly until a measurement has been taken at each angle and a computer constructs the image Used to identify tumors and abnormalities Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): involves the application of a powerful magnetic field to 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Brain Size and Intelligence Research has not supported that a larger brain is correlated with higher intelligence Brain-to-body ratio research has some limited validity Moderate correlation exists between IQ and brain size (.3) Amount of grey and white matter may also

play a role IQ is correlated with amount of grey matter 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition.

May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Brain Size and Intelligence (contd.) Men have larger brains than women but IQ is the same Various differences in specific brain structures exist between men and women, but the number of neurons are about the same for both

Explanations in differences in cognitive abilities can perhaps be better explained by interest than abilities (i.e., more male chess masters because more boys play chess) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Brain Size and Intelligence (contd.) Greater resemblance among twins for both

brain size and IQ For monozygotic twins, the size of one twins brain correlates significantly with the other twins IQ Therefore, whatever genes that control the brain also relate to IQ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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