LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane
LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 12 Lecture slides also by: Kim Foglia and Kelly Riedell The Cell Cycle
Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cell Division The ability of organisms to produce more of their own kind best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter unicellular organisms = division of one cell reproduces the entire organism
Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.2
100 m (a) Reproduction 200 m (b) Growth and development 20 m
(c) Tissue renewal Mitosis or Meiosis? Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA = MITOSIS Eukaryotic cell division consists of Mitosis, the division of the genetic material in the nucleus Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm The exception is meiosis, a special type of division that can
produce sperm and egg (gametes) cells = MEIOSIS Meiosis yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as the parent cell 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. VOCAB: Vocab to know: Genome- entire complement of genetic material
Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division Somatic cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
More Vocab to know: DNA must duplicate to get ready to divide Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids (joined copies of the original
chromosome), which separate during cell division The centromere is the narrow waist of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached
During division two sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome separate. Once separate, the chromatids are called chromosomes 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of
Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Interphase Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases
G1 phase (first gap) S phase (synthesis) G2 phase (second gap) The cell grows during all three phases, but chromosomes are duplicated only during the S phase 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Some can return to cycle with signal
(Ex; Liver cells respond to injury) Some never divide again (Ex: Mature nerve, muscle cells) Mitosis Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases
Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis overlaps the latter stages of mitosis 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.7a
Prophase G2 of Interphase Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin (duplicated)
Early mitotic spindle Plasma membrane Nucleolus Nuclear envelope
Aster Centromere Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Prometaphase Fragments of nuclear
Centrosome at one spindle pole Telophase and Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow Daughter chromosomes
Nuclear envelope forming Nucleolus forming More Vocab:
The mitotic spindle -made of microtubulescontrols chromosome movement The spindle includes: the centrosomes, the spindle microtubules, and the asters An aster (a radial array of short microtubules) extends from each centrosome
Kinetochores are protein complexes associated with centromeres microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends
Metaphase plate: an imaginary structure at the midway point between the spindles two poles 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cytokinesis: A Closer Look Cytokinesis begins during anaphase or telophase and the spindle eventually disassembles
In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.11
MODIFIED from a slide show by Kim Foglia http://www.explorebiology.com/documents/37Ch12MitosisRegulation2005a.pdf Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are present all the time but inactive unless combined with cyclins KINASESEnzymes that work by adding a phosphate group
to other molecules Presence of MPF triggers passage past G1 & G 2 checkpoints Cyclin levels change throughout cell cycle Fluctuating levels
of different Cyclin-Cdk complexes seem to control all stages of cell cycle Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints An example of an internal signal is that kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules
send a molecular signal that delays anaphase Some external signals are growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.18 EXTERNAL SIGNAL
Scalpels 1 A sample of human connective tissue is cut up into small pieces. 2 Enzymes digest the extracellular matrix, resulting in
a suspension of free fibroblasts. Petri dish 3 Cells are transferred to culture vessels. Without PDGF
For example, plateletderived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the division of human fibroblast cells in culture 4 PDGF is added to half the vessels.
With PDGF 10 m Cancer cells exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence CANCER CELLS
Dont respond to control signals Lose density-dependent inhibition Lose anchorage dependence Telomerase enzymes maintain/replace telomeres Transformationprocess that changes a normal cell into a cancer cell
Telomeres protect DNA from being degraded Telomeres become shorter with each replication; shorter in older cells Telomerase enzyme lengthens telomeres Cancer cells have increased telomerase activity 2009 Nobel Prize Physiology/Medicine Discovery of Telomeres
Jack Szostak Carol Greider Elizabeth Blackburn. Most cells divide 20-50 times in culture; then stop, age, die Cancer cells are immortal -HeLa cells from a tumor removed from a woman (Henrietta Lacks) in
1951 are still reproducing in culture http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Info/Press/gfx/081223_cells_300.jpg Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Cancer cells do not respond normally to the bodys control mechanisms Cancer cells may not need growth factors to grow and divide They may make their own growth factor
They may convey a growth factors signal without the presence of the growth factor They may have an abnormal cell cycle control system 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cancer cells that are not
eliminated by the immune system form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue If abnormal cells remain only at the original site, the lump is called a benign tumor
Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form additional tumors
Binary Fission in Bacteria Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by binary fission In binary fission, the chromosome replicates (beginning at the origin of replication), and the two daughter chromosomes actively
move apart 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 12.12-4 Origin of replication E. coli cell
cells result. Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome Two copies of origin Origin
Origin The Evolution of Mitosis Since prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes, mitosis probably evolved from binary fission Certain protists exhibit types of cell division that seem intermediate between binary
fission and mitosis 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. VOCAB REVIEW Figure 12.UN04 Figure 12.UN06
Perioeci(neither slave nor citizen)- literally "dwellers-around," who were the craftsmen and traders and blacksmiths. Citizens and non-citizens. Citizens = free, adult, landowning males. Non-citizens = women, slaves, foreigners.
A singular subject takes a singular verb while a plural subject takes a plural verb. The pot of eggs is boiling on the stove . The eggs are boiling on the stove. Try. Each of them _ wrong. Many outcomes...
Ethics and the early childhood educator: Using the NAEYC code. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Fox, L., & Garrison, S. (2005). Helping children learn to manage their own behavior. What Works Brief, 7. Center on...
The spreadsheet contains detailed instructions and must be completed by the grantee (city or county) level, not a contractor. If you have not received a reimbursement worksheet with your grant budget populated, please contact the IDC grant program manager. ......
Hive, Avro, Kafka, and other bits and pieces... Used for discovering People You May Know and other fun facts. Yahoo! More than 100,000 CPUs in >40,000 computers running Hadoop. Biggest cluster: 4500 nodes (2*4cpu boxes w 4*1TB disk & 16GB...
* The Investigative Type Prefers working with observational, symbolic, theoretical investigations of scientific or cultural phenomena Aversion to persuasive, social, repetitive activities Perceives self as having scholarly, mathematical, & scientific ability; values science Perceives self as lacking leadership ability Self-descriptors...
Freud. Limited. Too specific - Body Zones. Based on psychosexual stages. Some discussion on interaction between child and others. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA. At each stage of freud points out that there is a...
Tenochtitlán Example of an aqueduct Example of a dike The Aztecs The Aztecs formed military alliances with other groups and conquered other nations, which led to the creation of an empire that extended from central Mexico to the Guatemalan border....
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!